Neonatology pp 733-758 | Cite as

Neonatal Lung Development and Pulmonary Malformations

  • Corrado MorettiEmail author
  • Paola Papoff
Reference work entry


There are five stages of lung development: embryonal, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular, and alveolar. Structural development of the lung may be altered by a number of prenatal conditions. The principal pulmonary malformations include intrapulmonary cystic malformations (i.e., congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchopulmonary sequestration, congenital lobar emphysema, and bronchogenic cysts), pulmonary agenesia, pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and alveolar capillary dysplasia. Congenital pulmonary malformations are often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound; however, some will present either in the neonatal period or during childhood. Symptoms vary according to the degree of lung involvement. Initial management of pulmonary malformations is supportive care, whereas surgical repair is indicated for selected cases. Prognosis is good for most pulmonary malformations except for severe pulmonary hypoplasia and alveolar capillary dysplasia.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Pediatric Intensive Care UnitSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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