Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Disseminated Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis (Leiomyomatosis Peritonealis Disseminata)

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_5415-1


A disorder characterized by multiple, often numerous, banal-appearing smooth muscle neoplasms involving the peritoneal and abdominal cavity.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis is uncommon and often discovered incidentally. Most (>70%) occur in women who are currently or recently pregnant or who are on oral contraception. Rarely, it occurs in the setting of an estrogen-producing ovarian tumor. This condition may also occur following unconfined morcellation of otherwise benign uterine leiomyomata.

  • Age

    Patients are typically reproductive aged, but occasionally this disorder can occur in postmenopausal women.

  • Sex

    This condition occurs in women.

  • Site

    Tumors typically involve surfaces of the peritoneal and abdominal cavity.

  • Treatment

    Persistent and unresectable disease has been successfully treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or aromatase inhibitors.

  • Outcome

    Patients typically have a benign clinical course and aggressive...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Al-Talib, A., & Tulandi, T. (2010). Pathophysiology and possible iatrogenic cause of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 69(4), 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belmarez, J. A., Latifi, H. R., Zhang, W., & Matthews, C. M. (2019). Simultaneously occurring disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis and multiple extrauterine adenomyomas following hysterectomy. Proceedings (Baylor University Medical Center), 32(1), 126–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butnor, K. J., Burchette, J. L., & Robboy, S. J. (1999). Progesterone receptor activity in leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 18(3), 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Büttner, A., Bässler, R., & Theele, C. (1993). Pregnancy-associated ectopic decidua (deciduosis) of the greater omentum. An analysis of 60 biopsies with cases of fibrosing deciduosis and leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Pathology, Research and Practice, 189(3), 352–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clavero, P. A., Nogales, F. F., Ruiz-Avila, I., et al. (1992). Regression of peritoneal leiomyomatosis after treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 2(1), 52–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  9. Hardman, W. J., & Majmudar, B. (1996). Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: Clinicopathologic analysis of five cases. Southern Medical Journal, 89(3), 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kitazawa, S., Shiraishi, N., & Maeda, S. (1992). Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with adipocytic differentiation. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 71(6), 482–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamarca, M., Rubio, P., Andrés, P., et al. (2011). Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with malignant degeneration. A case report. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, 32(6), 702–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  19. Takeda, T., Masuhara, K., & Kamiura, S. (2008). Successful management of a leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with an aromatase inhibitor. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112(2 Pt 2), 491–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tavassoli, F. A., & Norris, H. J. (1982). Peritoneal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata): A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases with ultrastructural observations. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 1(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tulandi, T., Leung, A., & Jan, N. (2016). Nonmalignant sequelae of unconfined morcellation at laparoscopic hysterectomy of myomectomy. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, 23(3), 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Women’s and Perinatal Pathology, Department of PathologyBrigham Women’s HospitalBostonUSA