Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Inflammatory Myofibroblastoma of the Breast

  • Gaetano Magro
  • Lucia Salvatorelli
Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_4756-1



Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is currently classified by WHO as a soft tissue tumor composed of spindly myofibroblasts admixed with inflammatory cells such as plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (Coffin and Fletcher 2013). IMT can occur in adults at several anatomic sites, including the breast. Although initially thought to be an exaggerated inflammatory local response to various stimuli, and thus variably labeled as “inflammatory pseudotumor (IP) or plasma cell granuloma,” there is growing evidence that a subset of these lesions are truly neoplastic in nature with the tendency to recur in up to 25% of the cases and with a slight risk of distant metastasis. This is especially true if IMT typically arises in the lung and abdomen of children/adolescents (Coffin and Fletcher 2013). As future studies are needed to better define the boundaries between a reactive and a neoplastic process, the combined...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Bosse, K., Ott, C., Biegner, T., Fend, F., Siegmann-Luz, K., Wallwiener, D., & Hahn, M. (2014). 23-year-old female with an inflammatory Myofibroblastic tumour of the breast: A case report and a review of the literature. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 74, 167–170.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheuk, W., Chan, A. C., Lam, W. L., Chow, S. M., Crowley, P., Lloydd, R., Campbell, I., Thorburn, M., & Chan, J. K. (2009). IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis: Description of a new member of the IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 33, 1058–1064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi, E. J., Jin, G. Y., Chung, M. J., Moon, W. S., & Youn, H. J. (2015). Primary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the breast with metastasis: Radiographic and histopathologic predictive factors. Journal of Breast Cancer, 18, 200–205.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Coffin, C. M., & Fletcher, J. A. (2013). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. In C. D. M. Fletcher, J. A. Bridge, P. C. W. Hogendoorn, & F. Mertens (Eds.), WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone (4th ed., pp. 83–84). Lyon: WHO Press.Google Scholar
  5. Haj, M., Weiss, M., Loberant, N., & Cohen, I. (2003). Inflammatory pseudotumor of the breast: Case report and literature review. The Breast Journal, 9, 423–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Markopoulos, C., Charalampoudis, P., Karagiannis, E., Antonopoulou, Z., & Mantas, D. (2015). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast. Case Reports in Surgery, 2015, 705127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Talu, C. K., Çakır, Y., Hacıhasanoğlu, E., Leblebici, C., Aksoy, Ş., & Nazlı, M. A. (2016). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast coexisting with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The Journal of Breast Health, 12, 171–173.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Vecchio, G. M., Amico, P., Grasso, G., Vasquez, E., La Greca, G., & Magro, G. (2011). Post-traumatic inflammatory pseudotumor of the breast with atypical morphological features: A potential diagnostic pitfall. Report of a case and a critical review of the literature. Pathology, Research and Practice, 207, 322–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Zhao, H. D., Wu, T., Wang, J. Q., Zhang, W. D., He, X. L., Bao, G. Q., Li, Y., Gong, L., & Wang, Q. (2013). Primary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast with rapid recurrence and metastasis: A case report. Oncology Letters, 5, 97–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Zhou, Y., Zhu, J., Zhang, Y., Jiang, J., & Jia, M. (2013). An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the breast with ALK overexpression. BMJ Case Reports, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-07-2011-4474, pii: bcr0720114474.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaetano Magro
    • 1
  • Lucia Salvatorelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, G.F. Ingrassia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele,” Anatomic Pathology Section, School of MedicineUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly