Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a neoplastic proliferation confined to the mammary ductal-lobular system, which is surrounded by a myoepithelial layer and a basal membrane. DCIS covers a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by subtle to marked cytological atypia, without any invasion of the stromal tissue (Lakhani et al. 2012).
DCIS incidence gradually and constantly increased over the past decades (from 5.8 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 34.4 per 100,000 women in 2014), according to data of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER 2014). DCIS consequently constitutes around 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses.
The widespread use of mammography, as well as implementation of national breast screening programs (Ernster and Barclay 1997), contributed to the diagnosis...
References and Further Reading
- Böcker, W. (2006). Preneoplasia of the breast. A new conceptual approach to proliferative breast disease. Munich: Elsevier GmbH.Google Scholar
- Comparison of Operative to Monitoring and Endocrine Therapy (COMET). Trial For Low Risk DCIS (COMET). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02926911
- Elshof, L. E., Tryfonidis, K., Slaets, L., et al. (2015). Feasibility of a prospective, randomised, open-label, international multicentre, phase III, non-inferiority trial to assess the safety of active surveillance for low risk ductal carcinoma in situ – the LORD study. European Journal of Cancer, 51, 1497–1510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, EORTC Radiotherapy Group, Bijker, N., et al. (2006). Breast-conserving treatment with or without radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma-in-situ: Ten-year results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized phase III trial 10853 – a study by the EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 3381–3387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lakhani, S. R., Ellis, I. O., Schnitt, S. J., et al. (2012). WHO classification of tumors of the breast. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- NCCN. (2015). Guidelines: https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/default.aspx
- Pluchinotta, A. (2018). History of the DCIS of the breast and the evolution of knowledge based on ductal tree anatomy. In C. Mariotti (Ed.), Ductal Carcinoma in situ (pp. 1–23). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
- Staerkle, R. F., Lenzlinger, P. M., Suter, S. L., et al. (2006). Synchronous bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ of the male breast associated with gynecomastia in a 30-year-old patient following repeated injections of stanozolol. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 97, 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. (2014). National Cancer Institute. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2014/
- Tavassoli, F. A., & Devilee, P. (2003). World Health Organization classification of tumors of the breast. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar