Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Related Neoplasms

  • Emily Mitchell
  • Emma Gudgin
  • Livia Raso-BarnettEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_3816-1

Synonyms

Definition

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a bone marrow cancer, characterized by the clonal expansion and lack of differentiation of early myeloid cells. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis of AML requires a myeloid blast count ≥20% of nucleated cells in the blood or bone marrow. Blasts can also infiltrate other organs or tissues such as skin, gums, or lymph nodes. Rarely AML can present as an isolated myeloid sarcoma in any tissue. The definition of myeloid blasts includes abnormal promyelocytes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and promonocytes in monocytic/monoblastic AML. Almost any myeloid lineage can be affected; myeloid or monocytic are relatively common, but rare basophilic, pure erythroid and megakaryocytic forms of AML exist.

Classification

AML is an extremely...
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References and Further Reading

  1. Döhner, H., Estey, E., Grimwade, D., Amadori, S., Appelbaum, F. R., Büchner, T., Dombret, H., Ebert, B. L., Fenaux, P., Larson, R. A., Levine, R. L., Lo-Coco, F., Naoe, T., Niederwieser, D., Ossenkoppele, G. J., Sanz, M., Sierra, J., Tallman, M. S., Tien, H. F., Wei, A. H., Löwenberg, B., & Bloomfield, C. D. (2017). Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel. Blood, 129(4), 424–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Erber, W. (Ed.). (2010). Diagnostic techniques in hematological malignancies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ley, T. J., Miller, C., Ding, L., Raphael, B. J., Mungall, A. J., Robertson, A., Hoadley, K., Triche, T. J., Jr., Laird, P. W., Baty, J. D., Fulton, L. L., Fulton, R., Heath, S. E., Kalicki-Veizer, J., Kandoth, C., Klco, J. M., Koboldt, D. C., Kanchi, K. L., Kulkarni, S., Lamprecht, T. L., Larson, D. E., Lin, L., Lu, C., McLellan, M. D., McMichael, J. F., Payton, J., Schmidt, H., Spencer, D. H., Tomasson, M. H., Wallis, J. W., Wartman, L. D., Watson, M. A., Welch, J., Wendl, M. C., Ally, A., Balasundaram, M., Birol, I., Butterfield, Y., Chiu, R., Chu, A., Chuah, E., Chun, H. J., Corbett, R., Dhalla, N., Guin, R., He, A., Hirst, C., Hirst, M., Holt, R. A., Jones, S., Karsan, A., Lee, D., Li, H. I., Marra, M. A., Mayo, M., Moore, R. A., Mungall, K., Parker, J., Pleasance, E., Plettner, P., Schein, J., Stoll, D., Swanson, L., Tam, A., Thiessen, N., Varhol, R., Wye, N., Zhao, Y., Gabriel, S., Getz, G., Sougnez, C., Zou, L., Leiserson, M. D., Vandin, F., Wu, H. T., Applebaum, F., Baylin, S. B., Akbani, R., Broom, B. M., Chen, K., Motter, T. C., Nguyen, K., Weinstein, J. N., Zhang, N., Ferguson, M. L., Adams, C., Black, A., Bowen, J., Gastier-Foster, J., Grossman, T., Lichtenberg, T., Wise, L., Davidsen, T., Demchok, J. A., Shaw, K. R., Sheth, M., Sofia, H. J., Yang, L., Downing, J. R., & Eley, G. (2013). Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(22), 2059–2074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily Mitchell
    • 1
  • Emma Gudgin
    • 1
  • Livia Raso-Barnett
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Haematopathology and Oncology Diagnostic Service (HODS), Cambridge University HospitalsAddenbrookes HospitalCambridgeUK