Masticatory Muscle Pain and Disorders

  • Tommaso CastroflorioEmail author
  • Andrea Bargellini
  • Andrea Deregibus
  • Peter Svensson
Living reference work entry


This chapter represents a concerted attempt to provide the clinician with a comprehensive overview on the basic neurobiological mechanisms underlying the many different manifestations of jaw muscle pain and disorders. The range of conditions varies from muscle pain being secondary to other diseases and conditions, to being the primary pain condition, i.e., there are no obvious causes or known etiological factors for the pain or dysfunction. A careful history and clinical examination of the jaw and neck muscles will facilitate a tentative diagnosis that may be followed by the need for additional examinations and investigations. This chapter will aid in the diagnostic process and institution of appropriate therapy for masticatory muscle pain.


Muscle pain Trigger points Temporomandibular disorders Sleep bruxism Awake bruxism Movement disorders 


  1. Abbruzzese G, Berardelli A, Defazio G. Hemifacial spasm. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:675–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agamanolis DP, Dasu S, Krill CE Jr. Tumors of skeletal muscle. Hum Pathol. 1986;17:778–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Hadithy AF, Ivanova SA, Pechlivanoglou P, Semke A, Fedorenko O, Kornetova E, et al. Tardive dyskinesia and DRD3, HTR2A and HTR2C gene polymorphisms in Russian psychiatric inpatients from Siberia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(3):475–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albanese A, Del Sorbo F, Comella C, Jinnah HA, Mink JW, Post B, Vidailhet M, Volkmann J, Warner TT, Leentjens AF, Martinez-Martin P, Stebbins GT, Goetz CG, Schrag A. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord. 2013;28:874–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders. 3rd ed. Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson P. More evidence links pesticides, solvents, with Parkinson’s [internet]. [updated 2013 June 11; cited 2016 Apr 28]. 2013. Available from
  8. Anthoney TR. Neuroanatomy and the neurologic exam: a thesaurus of synonyms, similar-sounding non-synonyms, and terms of variable meaning. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  9. Aoki T, Naito H, Ota Y, Shiiki K. Myositis Ossificans traumatina of the masticatory muscles: review of the literature and report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1083–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arita H, Kishima H, Hosomi K, Iwaisako K, Hashimoto N, Saitoh Y, Yoshimine T. Hemifacial spasm caused by intra-axial brainstem cavernous angioma with venous angiomas. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26(2):281–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asmussen E. Muscle fatigue. Med Sci Sports. 1979;11(4): 313–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakker PR, van Harten PN, van Os J. Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism in the DRD3 gene: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2006;83(2–3):185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Balasubramaniam R, Ram S. Orofacial movement disorders. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20(2):273–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben Slama L, Zaghbani A, Hidaya S. Jaw muscle tumors. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2009;110(6):335–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benzon HT, Raj PP. Raj’s management of pain. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Bereiter DA, Okamoto K. Neurobiology of estrogen status in deep craniofacial pain. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;97:251–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berkow R. The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. In: Beers MH, editor. The nervous system. 16th ed. Rahway: Merck; 1992. p. 1274–5.Google Scholar
  18. Bhidayasiri R, Fahn S, Weiner WJ, Gronseth GS, Sullivan KL, Zesiewicz TA. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2013;81(5):463–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bitsko RH, Holbrook JR, Visser SN, Mink JW, Zinner SH, Ghandour RM, Blumberg SJA. National profile of Tourette syndrome, 2011–2012. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(5):317–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bostwick JM, Jaffee MS. Buspirone as an antidote to SSRI-induced bruxism in 4 cases. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(12):857–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boudreau SA, Hennings K, Svensson P, Sessle BJ, Arendt-Nielsen L. The effects of training time, sensory loss and pain on human motor learning. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37(9):704–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bron C, Dommerholt JD. Etiology of myofascial trigger points. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2012;16(5):439–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burgunder JM, Guttman M, Perlman S, Goodman N, van Kammen DP, Goodman L. An international survey-based algorithm for the pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington’s disease. PLoS Curr. 2011;3:RRN1260.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burke RE, Fahn S, Jankovic J, Marsden CD, Lang AE, Gollomp S, Ilson J. Tardive dystonia: late-onset and persistent dystonia caused by antipsychotic drugs. Neurology. 1982;32(12):1335–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cairns BE, Hu JW, Arendt-Nielsen L, Sessle BJ, Svensson P. Sex-related differences in human pain and rat afferent discharge evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:782–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cao Y, Zhang W, Yap AU, Xie QF, Fu KY. Clinical characteristics of lateral pterygoid myospasm: a retrospective study of 18 patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2012;113(6):762–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsson GE, Egermark I, Magnusson T. Predictors of bruxism, other oral parafunctions, and tooth wear over a 20-year follow-up period. J Orofac Pain. 2003;17(1): 50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Castrillon EE, Cairns BE, Wang K, Arendt-Nielsen L, Svensson P. Comparison of glutamate-evoked pain between the temporalis and masseter muscles in men and women. Pain. 2012;153:823–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castrillon EE, Cairns B, List T, Svensson P, Ernberg M. Acidic saline-induced pain as a model for experimental masseter myalgia in healthy subjects. Eur J Pain. 2013;17(10):1438–46.Google Scholar
  30. Castroflorio T, Falla D, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C, Deregibus A. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects. J Oral Rehabil. 2012a;39(9):648–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Castroflorio T, Falla D, Wang K, Svensson P, Farina D. Effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain on the spatial distribution of surface EMG activity of the human masseter muscle during tooth clenching. J Oral Rehabil. 2012b;39(2):81–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Castroflorio T, Deregibus A, Bargellini A, Debernardi C, Manfredini D. Detection of sleep bruxism: comparison between an electromyographic and electrocardiographic portable holter and polysomnography. J Oral Rehabil. 2014;41(3):163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castroflorio T, Bargellini A, Rossini G, Cugliari G, Rainoldi A, Deregibus A. Risk factors related to sleep bruxism in children: a systematic literature review. Arch Oral Biol. 2015a;60:1618–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Castroflorio T, Bargellini A, Rossini G, Cugliari G, Deregibus A, Manfredini D. Agreement between clinical and portable EMG/ECG diagnosis of sleep bruxism. J Oral Rehabil. 2015b;42(10):759–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Castroflorio T, Bargellini A, Rossini G, Cugliari G, Deregibus A. Sleep bruxism in adolescents: a systematic literature review of related risk factors. Eur J Orthod. 2016.Google Scholar
  36. Chen D, Zhao M, Mundi GR. Bone morphogenic proteins. Growth Factors. 2004;22:233–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cheung K, Hume P, Maxwell L. Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med. 2003;33(2):145–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark GT. Classification, causation and treatment of masticatory myogenous pain and dysfunction. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20(2):145–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clark GT, Ram S. Orofacial movement disorders. In: Scrivani SJ, editor. Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  40. Clark GT, Padilla M, Dionne R. Medication treatment efficacy and chronic orofacial pain. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2016;28(3):409–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Connor DF, Fletcher KE, Wood JS. Neuroleptic-related dyskinesias in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(12):967–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dagher R, Helman L. Rhabdomyosarcoma: an overview. Oncologist. 1999;4:34–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dantonello TM, Int-Veen C, et al. Initial patient characteristics can predict pattern and risk of relapse in localized rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(3):406–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Davies C. The trigger point therapy workbook. 2nd ed. Oakland: Published by New Harbinger Publication Inc; 2004. p. 47–74.Google Scholar
  45. Dawson A, Stensson N, Ghafouri B, Gerdle B, List T, Svensson P, Ernberg M. Dopamine in plasma – a biomarker for myofascial TMD pain? J Headache Pain. 2016;17(1):65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. De Leeuw R, Klasser GD, editors. Orofacial pain: guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management. 5th ed. Hanover Park: Quintessence; 2013.Google Scholar
  47. De Leeuw R, Eisenlohr-Moul T, Bertrand P. The association of smoking status with sleep disturbance, psychological functioning, and pain severity in patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2013 Winter;27(1):32–41.Google Scholar
  48. De Meulemeester KE, Castelein B, Coppieters I, Barbe T, Cools A, Cagnie B. Comparing trigger point dry needling and manual pressure technique for the management of myofascial neck/shoulder pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2017;40(1):11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Defazio G, Abbruzzese G, Livrea P, Berardelli A. Epidemiology of primary dystonia. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3(11):673–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Deregibus A, Castroflorio T, Bargellini A, Debernardi C. Reliability of a portable device for the detection of sleep bruxism. Clin Oral Investig. 2014;18(8):2037–43.Google Scholar
  51. Del Sorbo F, Albanese A. Botulinum neurotoxins for the treatment of focal dystonias: review of rating tools used in clinical trials. Toxicon. 2015;107(Pt A):89–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Pilato F, Saturno E, Dileone M, Mazzone P, Insola A, Tonali PA, Rothwell JC. The physiological basis of transcranial motor cortex stimulation in conscious humans. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:255–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dworkin SF, LeResche L. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique. J Craniomandib Disord. 1992;6(4):301–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ellison JM, Stanziani P. SSRI-associated nocturnal bruxism in four patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54(11): 432–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fahn S, Bressman S, Marsden CD. Classification of dystonia. Adv Neurol. 1998;78:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fanburg-Smith JC, Lasota J, Auerbach A, et al. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of the soft tissues. In: Barnes L, editor. Surgical pathology of the head and neck, vol. 2. 3rd ed. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2009;14(6):595–603.Google Scholar
  57. Fernandes G, Van Selms MK, Gonçalves DA, Lobbezoo F, Camparis CM. Factors associated with temporomandibular disorders pain in adolescents. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42(2):113–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fernández-de-las-Penas C, Svensson P. Myofascial temporomandibular disorder. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2016;12(1):40–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ferreira CL, Machado BC, Borges CG, Rodrigues Da Silva MA, Sforza C, De Felício CM. Impaired orofacial motor functions on chronic temporomandibular disorders. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014;24(4):565–71.Google Scholar
  60. Feu D, Catharino F, Quintão CC, Almeida MA. A systematic review of etiological and risk factors associated with bruxism. J Orthod. 2013;40(2):163–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Finsterer J. Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:218.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fiori JL, Billings PC, de la Peña LS, Kaplan FS, Shore EM. Dysregulation of the BMP-p38 MAPK signaling pathway in cells from patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:902–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fité-Trepat L, Martos-Fernández M, Alberola-Ferranti M, Romanini-Montecino C, Saez-Barba M, Bescós-Atín C. Myositis ossificans of the masseter muscle: a rare location. Report of a case and review of literature. J Clin Exp Dent. 2016;8(2):e210–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Fountoulakis KN, Panagiotidis P, Siamouli M, Kantartzis S, Mavridis T, Iacovides A, Kaprinis G. Amisulpride-induced tardive dyskinesia. Schizophr Res. 2006;88(1–3):232–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Franco T, La Boria A, Domanico R, Piazzetta GL, Donato G, Allegra E. Rare adult masseteric rhabdomyosarcoma and a review of the literature. Case Rep Oncol. 2013;6(3):472–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fu KY, Zhang W, Cao Y, Kang YF, Xie QF. Classification and clinical characteristics of masticatory myospasm. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;47(7): 423–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gadow KD, Nolan EE, Sprafkin J, Schwartz J. Tics and psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44(7):502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gelenberg AJ. Treating extrapyramidal reactions: some current issues. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987;48(Suppl):24–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gerber PE, Lynd LD. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor-induced movement disorders. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(6):692–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Glaros AG. Temporomandibular disorders and facial pain: a psychophysiological perspective. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008;33(3):161–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Glaros AG, Williams K. “Tooth contact” versus “clenching”: oral parafunctions and facial pain. J Orofac Pain. 2012;26(3):176–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Glaros AG, Hanson AH, Ryen CC. Headache and oral parafunctional behaviors. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2014;39(1):59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Go CL, Rosales RL, Caraos RJ, Fernandez HH. The current prevalence and factors associated with tardive dyskinesia among Filipino schizophrenic patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15(9):655–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goetz DG. Tardive dyskinesia. In: Watts RL, Koller WC, editors. Movement disorders: neurologic principles and practice: Blackwell Publishing; Boston, USA: 1997. p. 519–26.Google Scholar
  75. Gokarn A, Gokarn S, Rathod V. Ultrasonography for masseter muscle cysticercosis. Indian Pediatr. 2011;48:141–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Goldstein RE, Clark AW. The clinical management of awake bruxism. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017;148(6): 387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goncalves DA, Camparis CM, Speciali JG, Franco AL, Castanharo SM, Bigal ME. Temporomandibular disorders are differentially associated with headache diagnoses: a controlled study. Clin J Pain. 2011;27:611–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gonzales Y, Mohl N. Masticatory muscle pain and dysfunction. In: Laskin D, Green C, Hylander W, editors. TMDS: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. Chicago: Quintessence; 2006. p. 255–69.Google Scholar
  79. Greene CS, Laskin DM. Treatment of TMDs: bridging the gap between advances in research and clinical patient management. Hanover Park: Quintessence; 2013. p. 23–5.Google Scholar
  80. Grimes DA, Lang AE. Treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci. 1999;26(Suppl 2):S39–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hao SS, Feng YH, Zhang GB, Wang AP, Wang F, Wang P. Neuropathophysiology of paroxysmal, systemic, and other related movement disorders. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(13):2452–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Harmon JB, Sanders AE, Wilder RS, Essick GK, Slade GD, Hartung JE, Nackley AG. Circulating Omentin-1 and chronic painful temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2016;30(3):203–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Haug BA, Schonle PW, Knobloch C, Kohne M. Silent period measurements revives a valuable diagnostic tool with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1992;85:158–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hong CZ. Lidocaine injection versus dry needling to myofascial trigger point. The importance of the local twitch response. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1994;73(4):256–63.Google Scholar
  85. Iida T, Komiyama O, Obara R, Baad-Hansen L, Kawara M, Svensson P. Influence of visual feedback on force-EMG curves from spinally innervated versus trigeminally innervated muscles. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58(3):331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jain P, Jain I. Oral manifestations of tuberculosis: step towards early diagnosis. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:ZE18–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Jankovic J, Tolosa E. Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders, vol. 30. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 394–400.Google Scholar
  88. Kalaykoya SI, Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Risk factor for anterior disc displacement with reduction and intermittent locking in adolescents. J Orofac Pain. 2011;25(2): 153–60.Google Scholar
  89. Kalichmann L, Vulfsons S. Dry needling in the management of musculoskeletal pain. J Am Board Fam Med. 2010;23(5):640–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kataoka K, Ekuni D, Mizutani S, Tomofuji T, Azuma T, Yamane M, Kawabata Y, Iwasaki Y, Morita M. Association between self-reported bruxism and malocclusion in university students: a cross-sectional study. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(6):423–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kavtaradze S, Mosidze T. Neuro-endocrinal regulation and disorders of intracranial hemocirculation in rheumatic diseases in children. Georgian Med News. 2007;(153):32–5.Google Scholar
  92. Ketenci A, Basat H, Esmaeilzadeh S. The efficacy of topical thiocolchicoside (Muscoril) in the treatment of acute cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a single-blind, randomized, prospective, phase IV clinical study. Agri. 2009;21:95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Keyser RE. Peripheral fatigue: high-energy phosphates and hydrogen ions. PM R. 2010;2(5):347–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kim ES. Valbenazine: first global approval. Drugs. 2017;77(10):1123–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kindler LL, Bennett RM, Jones KD. Central sensitivity syndromes: mounting pathophysiologic evidence to link fibromyalgia with other common chronic pain disorders. Pain Manag Nurs. 2011;12(1):15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Klasser GD, Greene CS. Oral appliances in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2009;107(2):212–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Knight T, Steeves T, Day L, Lowerison M, Jette N, Pringsheim T. Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47(2): 77–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kothari SF, Baad-Hansen L, Oono Y, Svensson P. Somatosensory assessment and conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders pain patients. Pain. 2015;156(12):2545–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Koutsimpelas D, Weber A, Lippert BM, Mann WJ. Multifocal adult rhabdomyoma of the head and neck: a case report and literature review. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35(2):313–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kumar V, Mahal BA. NGF – the TrkA to successful pain treatment. J Pain Res. 2012;5:279–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N. Infectious diseases. In: Robbins SL, Cotran RS, editors. Pathologic basis of disease. New York: WB Saunders; 2004. p. 406–8.Google Scholar
  102. Kumar BD, Dave B, Meghana SM. Cysticercosis of masseter. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lavigne GJ, Rompre ́ PH, Montplaisir JY. Sleep bruxism: validity of clinical research diagnostic criteria in a controlled polysomnographic study. J Dent Res. 1996;75:546–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K. Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35:476–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lavigne G, Manzini C, Huynh NT. Sleep bruxism. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 1128–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lee M, Kim M, Oh S, Choi YJ, Lee D, Lee SH, Yoon B. A self-determination theory-based self-myofascial release program in older adults with myofascial trigger points in the neck and back: a pilot study. Physiother Theory Pract. 2017;33(9):681–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Leite FM, Atallah AN, El Dib R, Grossmann E, Januzzi E, Andriolo RB, da Silva EM. Cyclobenzaprine for the treatment of myofascial pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;8(3):CD006830.Google Scholar
  108. Liou YJ, Lai IC, Liao DL, Chen JY, Lin CC, Lin CY. The human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene is associated with tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2006;86(1–3):323–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lipkin PH, Goldstein IJ, Adesman AR. Tics and dyskinesias associated with stimulant treatment in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(8):859–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lobbezoo F, Drangsholt M, Peck C, Sato H, Kopp S, Svensson P. Topical review: new insights into the pathology and diagnosis of disorders of the temporomandibular joint. J Orofac Pain. 2004;18:181–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Manfredini D, Winocur E. Are bruxism and the bite causally related? J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39(7):489–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Glaros A, Kato T, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ, de Leeuw R, Manfredini D, Svensson P, Winocur E. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:2–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lundberg IE, Vencovsky J. International collaboration including patients is essential to develop new therapies for patients with myositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2017;29(3):234–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Macefield VG, Gandevia SC, Henderson LA. Discrete changes in cortical activation during experimentally induced referred muscle pain: a single-trial fMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17(9):2050–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Malisza KL, Clancy C, Shiloff D, Holden J, Jones C, Paulson K, Yu DC, Summers R, Chudley AE. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of facial information processing in children with autistic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typically developing controls. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2011;23(3):269–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Malki GA, Zawawi KH, Melis M, et al. Prevalence of bruxism in children receiving treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2004;29(1):63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Manfredini D, Lobbezoo F. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. J Orofac Pain. 2009;23:153–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Manfredini D, Guarda-Nardini L, Winocur E, Piccotti F, Ahlberg J, Lobbezoo F. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of axis I epidemiologic findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2011;112:453–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Manfredini D, Winocur E, Guarda-Nardini L, Paesani D, Lobbezoo F. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature. J Orofac Pain. 2013a;27(2):99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Manfredini D, Ahlberg J, Castroflorio T, Poggio CE, Guarda-Nardini L, Lobbezoo F. Diagnostic accuracy of portable instrumental devices to measure sleep bruxism: a systematic literature review of polysomnographic studies. J Oral Rehabil. 2013b;40:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Manfredini D, Ahlberg J, Wincour E, Lobbezoo F. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42(11): 862–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Marchand S, Charest J, Li J, Chenard JR, Lavignolle B, Laurencelle L. Is TENS purely a placebo effect? A controlled study on chronic low back pain. Pain. 1993;54:99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Masdrakis VG, Papadimitriou GN, Papageorgiou C, Kouzoupis A, Giailoglou D, Soldatos CR. Development of tardive dyskinesia in a patient taking amisulpride. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31(2):586–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mayer P, Heinzer R, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism in respiratory medicine practice. Chest. 2016;149(1):262–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mense S. Muscle pain: mechanisms and clinical significance. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2008;105(12):214–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Mezaki T. Clinical characteristics and treatment of dystonia. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2011;51(7):465–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mishra YC, Nadkarni N. Oro-facial cysticercosis. Ann Dent. 1988;47:23–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mittal A, Das D, Iyer N, Nagaraj J, Gupta M. Masseter cysticercosis – a rare case diagnosed on ultrasound. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2008;37:113–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Murray GM, Peck C. Etiopathogenesis of muscle disorders. In: Manfredini D, editor. Current concepts on temporomandibular disorders, vol. 4. London: Quintessence; 2010. p. 61–80.Google Scholar
  130. Newton WA Jr, Gehan EA, Webber BL, Marsden HB, van Unik AJ, Hamoudi AB, Tosokos MG, Shimada H, Harms D, Schmidt D, et al. Classification of rhabdomyosarcoma and related sarcomas. Pathologic aspects and proposal for a new classification – an Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Cancer. 1995;76:1073–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nigam S, Singh T, Mishra A, Chaturvedi KU. Oral cysticercosis – report of six cases. Head Neck. 2001;23:497–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Okeson JP. Etiology and identification of functional disturbances in the masticatory system. Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion, vol. 7. 7th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2012. p. 25–30.Google Scholar
  133. Okeson JP. Evolution of occlusion and temporomandibular disorder in orthodontics: past, present, and future. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2015;147(Suppl 5):S216–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Oono Y, Wang K, Baad-Hansen L, Futarmal S, Kohase H, Svensson P, Arendt NL. Conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) pain patients. Exp Brain Res. 2014;232(10):3111–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ozdemir F, Birtane M, Kokino S. The clinical efficacy of low-power laser therapy on pain and function in cervical osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2001;20:181–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pal US, Kumar L, Mehta G, Singh N, Singh G, Singh M, Yadav HK. Trends in management of myofacial pain. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2014;5(2):109–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Park JW, Chung JW. Inflammatory cytokines and sleep disturbance in patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2016;30(1):27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Park JS, Koh EJ, Choi HY, Lee JM. Characteristic anatomical conformation of the vertebral artery causing vascular compression against the root exit zone of the facial nerve in patients with hemifacial spasm. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015;157(3):449–54; discussion 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Peritogiannis V, Tsouli S, Zafiris S, Pappas D, Mavreas V. Improvement of tardive dyskinesia following amisulpride treatment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30(4):748–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Peroutka SJ, Newman H, Harris H. Subjective effects of 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine in recreational users. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1988;1(4):273–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pettengill CA, Reisner-Keller L. The use of tricyclic antidepressants for the control of chronic orofacial pain. Cranio. 1997;15(1):53–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pezzoli G, Cereda E. Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2013;80(22): 2035–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Prutthipongsit A, Aui-aree N. The difference of treatment results between botulinum toxin A split injection sites and botulinum toxin A non-split injection sites for hemifacial spasm. J Med Assoc Thail. 2015;98(11): 1119–23.Google Scholar
  144. Qian J, Min JC, Chi Y, Ya TQ, Zhen T, Zhi YZ, et al. Post-infectious myositis ossificans in medial, lateral pterygoid muscles: a case report and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 2015;9:920–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Quintner JL, Bove GM, Cohen ML. A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon. Rheumatology. 2015;54(3):392–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Raja M. Tardive dystonia: prevalence, risk factors and comparison with tardive dyskinesia in a population of 200 acute psychiatric inpatients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;245:145–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Raja M. Managing antipsychotic-induced acute and tardive dystonia. Drug Saf. 1998;19(1):57–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rastogi S, Arora P, Devi P, Wazir SS, Kapoor S. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection. Contemp Clin Dent. 2013;4:504–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Reilmann R. Pharmacological treatment of chorea in Huntington’s disease: good clinical practice vs evidence-based guideline. Mov Disord. 2013;28(8): 1030–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Romanelli F, Adler DA, Bungay KM. Possible paroxetine-induced bruxism. Ann Pharmacother. 1996;30(11): 1246–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rossetti LM, Rossetti PH, Conti PC, de Araujo Cdos R. Association between sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a polysomnographic pilot study. Cranio. 2008;26(1):16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rudzinski ER, Anderson JR, Hawkins DS, Skapek SX, Parham DM, Teot LA. The World Health Organization classification of skeletal muscle tumors in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015;139(10):1281–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sannomya EK, Gonçalves M, Cavalcanti MP. Masseter muscle hypertrophy: case report. Braz Dent J. 2006;17:347–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Santos GT, Leite CC, Machado LR, McKinney AM, Lucato LT. Reduced diffusion in neurocysticercosis: circumstances of appearance and possible natural history implications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:310–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sato T, Yoda T. Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia: a new clinical entity of limited mouth opening. Jpn Dent Sci Rev. 2016;52(2):41–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sato H, Castrillon E, Cairns BE, Bendixen K, Wang K, Nakagawa T, Wajima K, Svensson P. Intramuscular temperature modulates glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain intensity in humans. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2015;29:158–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sato H, Castrillon EE, Cairns BE, Bendixen KH, Wang K, Nakagawa T, Wajima K, Svensson P. Intramuscular pH modulates glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain magnitude in humans. Eur J Pain. 2016;20:106–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schiff MJ, Meara DJ. Myositis Ossificans of the temporalis muscle: case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:1893–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Scott BL. Evaluation and treatment of dystonia. South Med J. 2000;93(8):746–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. See SJ, Tan EK. Severe amphetamine-induced bruxism: treatment with botulinum toxin. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;107(2):161–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sessle BJ. Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2000;11(1):57–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sessle BJ. Mechanisms of oral somatosensory and motor functions and their clinical correlates. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33(4):243–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Shah JP, Gilliams EA. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008;12(4):371–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sheth SB, Santhosh Kumar SN, Sabhlok S, Singh M. Munchmeyer’s disease-a rare case report and review of literature. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2014;43(5): 20140022.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Shetty S, Pitti V, Satish Babu CL, Surendra Kumar GP, Deepthi BC. Bruxism: a literature review. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2010;10(3):141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Siebner H, Peller M, Bartenstein P, Willoch F, Rossmeier C, Schwaiger M, Conrad B. Activation of frontal premotor areas during suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left primary sensorimotor cortex: a glucose metabolic PET study. Hum Brain Mapping. 2001;12:157–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Simunovic Z. Low level laser therapy with trigger points technique: a clinical study on 243 patients. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1996;14:163–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Slade GD, Ohrbach R, Greenspan JD, Fillingim RB, Bair E, Sanders AE, Dubner R, Diatchenko L, Meloto CB, Smith S, Maixner W. Painful temporomandibular disorder: decade of discovery from OPPERA studies. J Dent Res. 2016;95(10):1084–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Soler R, Rodríguez E, Remuiñán C, Santos M. MRI of musculoskeletal extraspinal tuberculosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001;25(2):177–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sorgun MH, Yilmaz R, Akin YA, Mercan FN, Akbostanci MC. Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of hemifacial spasm over 16 years. J Clin Neurosci. 2015;22(8):1319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Spinzia A, Moscato G, Broccardo E, Castelletti L, Maglitto F, Orabona GD, Piombino P. A rare isolated unilateral myositis ossificans traumatica of the lateral pterygoid muscle: a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2014;8:230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Everett ED, Dellinger P, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan EL, Montoya JG, Wade JC. Infectious diseases society of America. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(10):1373–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Struk DW, Munk PL, Lee MJ, Ho SG, Worsley DF. Imaging of soft tissue infections. Radiol Clin N Am. 2001;39(2):277–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sullivan MD, Robinson JP. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant medication for chronic pain. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006;17:381–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sun WH, Chen CC. Roles of proton-sensing receptors in the transition from acute to chronic pain. J Dent Res. 2016;95(2):135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Svensson P, Graven-Nielsen T. Craniofacial muscle pain: review of mechanisms and clinical manifestations. J Orofac Pain. 2001;15(2):117–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Svensson P, Kumar A. Assessment of risk factors for oro-facial pain and recent developments in classification: implications for management. J Oral Rehabil. 2016;43(12):977–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Svensson L, Wu C, Hulthe P, Johannessen K, Engel JA. Rapid changes in ascorbate and dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens after intracerebroventricular administration of NMDA. Brain Res. 1992;586(2): 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Svensson P, Cairns BE, Wang K, JW H, Graven-Nielsen T, Arendt-Nielsen L, Sessle BJ. Glutamate-evoked pain and mechanical allodynia in the human masseter muscle. Pain. 2003;101:221–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Svensson P, Romaniello A, Wang K, Arendt-Nielsen L, Sessle BJ. One hour of tongue-task training is associated with plasticity in corticomotor control of the human tongue musculature. Exp Brain Res. 2006;173(1):165–73.Google Scholar
  181. Tan EK, Chan LL, Lim SH, Lim WE, Khoo JB, Tan KP. Role of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in patients with hemifacial spasm. Ann Acad Med Singap. 1999;28(2):169–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Tanya KM, Adam BL, Eric AS, Saundra S, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders. Washington, DC: Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  183. Thobois S, Delamarre-Damier F, Derkinderen P. Treatment of motor dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: an overview. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107(4):269–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Thompson BA, Blount WB, Krumholz TS. Treatment approaches to bruxism. Am Fam Physician. 1994;49(7):1617–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Travell J, Simons D, Simons L. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, 2 vol. set. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Williams; 1999.Google Scholar
  186. Treede RD, Rief W, Barke A, et al. A classification of chronic pain for ICD-11. Pain. 2015;156(6):1003–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Van Hilten JJ, Hoff JI, Middelkoop HA, Roos RA. The clinimetrics of hypokinesia in Parkinson’s disease: subjective versus objective assessment. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1994;8(1–2):117–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wang JY, Lee LN, Hsueh PR, Shih JY, Chang YL, Yang PC, Luh KT. Tuberculous myositis: a rare but existing clinical entity. Rheumatology. 2003;42(7):836–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wei HT, Lai YW, Chen MH, Chen YS. Oral-paliperidone-induced tardive dyskinesia: a case report. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;34(5):578.e5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Weinkauf B, Deising S, Obreja O, Hoheisel U, Mense S, Schmelz M, Rukwied R. Comparison of nerve growth factor-induced sensitization pattern in lumbar and tibial muscle and fascia. Muscle Nerve. 2015;52(2):265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Weiss SW, Goldblum JR. Soft tissue tumours, vol. 7. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001. p. 140.Google Scholar
  192. Wenig BM. Atlas of head and neck pathology, vol. 16. 2nd ed. Saunders Elsevier; London, UK: 2008. p. 617.Google Scholar
  193. Winocur E, Gavish A, Voikovitch M, Emodi-Perlman A, Eli I. Drugs and bruxism: a critical review. J Orofac Pain. 2003;17(2):99–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Woda A. Pain in the trigeminal system: from orofacial nociception to neural network modeling. J Dent Res. 2003;82(10):764–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Katz RS, Mease P, Russell AS, Russell IJ, Winfield JB, Yunus MB. The American college of rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62(5):600–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wright EF. Referred craniofacial pain patterns in patients with temporomandibular disorder. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131:1307–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Yaltho TC, Jankovic J. The many faces of hemifacial spasm: differential diagnosis of unilateral facial spasms. Mov Disord. 2011;26(9):1582–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Yoshida K, Kaji R, Kohara N, Murase N, Ikeda A, Shibasaki H. Movement related cortical potentials before jaw excursions in oromandibular dystonia. Mov Disord. 2003;18:94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yoshida K, Bies RR, Suzuki T, Remington G, Pollock BG, Mizuno Y, et al. Tardive dyskinesia in relation to estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in patients with schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE data. Schizophr Res. 2014;153(1–3):184–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zesiewicz TA. Tardive dyskinesia. Neurol Now. 2014;10(2):35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhang X, Zhao H, Ying TT, Tang YD, Zhu J, Li ST. The effects of dual abnormal muscle response monitoring on microvascular decompression in patients with hemifacial spasm. World Neurosurg. 2017;101:93–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Zhi M, Lu XJ, Wang Q, Li B. Application of neuroendoscopy in the surgical treatment of complicated hemifacial spasm. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2017;22(1):25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tommaso Castroflorio
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrea Bargellini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrea Deregibus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Svensson
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Gnathology Unit, Department of Surgical SciencesLingotto Dental School, University of TorinoTorinoItaly
  2. 2.Specialization School of Orthodontics, Department of Surgical SciencesDental School, University of TorinoTorinoItaly
  3. 3.Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Dental MedicineKarolinska Institutet, Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON)HuddingeSweden

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ramesh Balasubramaniam
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental School and Oral Health Centre of Western AustraliaUniversity of Western AustraliaPerth WAAustralia

Personalised recommendations