Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Negative Appraisals

  • Laure FreydefontEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_826-1


Negative appraisals refer to the process through which people evaluate or appreciate a particular negative encounter in the environment that is relevant to his or her well-being.

Appraisal Theories and the Origin of Negative Appraisals

Although the term of appraisal has been commonly used in the literature for several decades (e.g., Arnold 1960), the controversy regarding the structure and the function of appraisal remains a concern. The present entry will first describe the emergence of the term “negative appraisal” in the literature and propose a clear definition of “negative appraisals.”

Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined the concept of appraisal as “a process through which the person evaluates whether a particular encounter with the environment is relevant to his or her well-being.” They distinguished between two types of appraisal: a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal. In a primary appraisal, people evaluate whether they have anything at stake in the encounter...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patrizia Velotti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational SciencesUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly