Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Implicit Measures of Personality

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_817-1



Implicit measures of personality that for reasons addressed below could be better named indirect are used to reflect the relation between “self” and a given personality feature and allow to infer one’s implicit self-concept indirectly from behavioral responses in specifically designed computer tasks instead of relying on a direct self-assessment. Hence, they can provide information about personality aspects that people may be unable or unwilling to report when asked directly and have demonstrated predictive validity of relevant criteria, especially under certain conditions (De Cuyper et al. 2017; Greenwald et al. 2009; Perugini et al. 2010).


The most common way to measure personality is via self-report. Basic personality structures such as the Big Five (McCrae and Costa 2008) and the Big Six (Ashton et al. 2004) are based on direct self-report measures, that is, by asking...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patrizia Velotti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational SciencesUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly