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Definition and Conceptualization
Optimism describes a positive orientation toward the future. Optimists are people who have the habitual tendency to expect positive future outcomes even when difficulties arise (Scheier and Carver 1992).
Part of being optimistic is keeping one’s head pointed toward the sun,
one’s feet moving forward.
Although the roots of a positive mindset and its consequences have been a topic of philosophical discussion for centuries, the empirical study of optimism began with Scheier and Carver’s (1985) seminal work on outcome expectancies. Optimism has been understood as “the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future” (Carver et al. 2010, p. 879). A host of studies have demonstrated that optimism is associated with...
KeywordsDispositional Optimism Optimistic Thinking Positive Illusions Strategic Optimism Unrealistic Optimism
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