Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Personality Processes

  • Stefanie Lindner
  • Damaris Aschwanden
  • Mathias AllemandEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_467-1



A personality process is “a series of steps (elements, components, and actions) through which some phenomenon takes place or emerges” (Baumert et al. 2017, p. 27). Personality processes differ with respect to several features including function, course, duration, awareness, and person-situation interactions.

Conceptualizing Personality Processes

A process is a time series of steps (i.e., actions, changes, or functions) resulting in an outcome (Baumert et al. 2017). Likewise, a personality process is a time series of thinking, feeling, and behaving that leads to an outcome. Process-oriented research in personality science investigates the dynamic unfolding of momentary thinking, feeling, and behaving in concrete situations (i.e., states) as well as broad and enduring tendencies in thinking, feeling, and behaving across situations (i.e., traits).

Personality processes can be...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie Lindner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Damaris Aschwanden
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mathias Allemand
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.University Research Priority Program (URPP) “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland