Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Deci, Edward and Ryan, Richard

  • Edward L. DeciEmail author
  • Richard M. Ryan
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_423-1

Early Life and Educational Background

Edward L. Deci was born in Palmyra, NY, in October 1942. He graduated as a mathematics major from Hamilton College in 1964, spent a year in Europe, received an MBA from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1967, and was awarded a PhD in social psychology from Carnegie Mellon University in 1970. His dissertation, supervised by Victor H. Vroom, examined the effects of social-contextual factors on intrinsic motivation. Deci was also an interdisciplinary postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University. He became an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in 1970, followed by associate professor, then full professor, and in 2006 he was named the Helen F. and Fred H. Gowen Professor in the social sciences moving to emeritus status in 2017. Deci was director of the Human Motivation Program in the Department of Psychology at the University Rochester from 1978 to 2017.

Richard M. Ryanwas born in Utica, NY in May...

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Selected Bibliography

  1. Chirkov, V., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31–49). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  4. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  6. Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 580–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Schultz, P. P., & Niemiec, C. P. (2015). Being aware and functioning fully: Mindfulness and interest-taking within self-determination theory. In K. W. Brown, R. M. Ryan, & J. D. Creswell (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness (pp. 112–129). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Deci, E. L., Olafsen, A. H., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Self-determination in work organizations: The state of a science. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 19–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gillison, F. B., Rouse, P., Standage, M., Sebire, S. J., Ryan, R. M. (2018). A meta-analysis of techniques to promote motivation for health behaviour change from a self-determination theory perspective. Health Psychology Review 13(1), 110–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(3), 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koestner, R., Ryan, R. M., Bernieri, F., & Holt, K. (1984). Setting limits on children’s behavior: The differential effects of controlling versus informational styles on intrinsic motivation and creativity. Journal of Personality, 52, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (Ed.), Annual review of psychology (Vol. 52, pp. 141–166). Palo Alto: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
  15. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Multiple identities within a single self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization within contexts and cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (2nd ed., pp. 225–246). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Ryan, R. M., & Di Domenico, S. I. (2016). Distinct motivations and their differentiated mechanisms: Reflections on the emerging neuroscience of human motivation. In S. Kim, J. Reeve, & M. Bong (Eds.), Recent developments in neuroscience research on human motivation: Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 19, pp. 349–370). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ryan, R. M., Legate, N., Niemiec, C. P., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Beyond illusions and defense: Exploring the possibilities and limits of human autonomy and responsibility through self-determination theory. In P. R. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), Meaning, mortality, and choice: The social psychology of existential concerns (pp. 215–233). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ryan, R. M., Di Domenico, S. I., Ryan, W. S., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Pervasive influences on wellness and thriving: Cultural, political, and economic contexts and the support of basic psychological needs. In F. Guay, H. W. Marsh, D. McInerney, & R. Craven (Eds.), Self: Driving positive psychology and well-being (Vol. 6, International advances in self research, pp. 199–232). Charlotte: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
  20. Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23(3), 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Williams, G. C., Niemiec, C. P., Patrick, H., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The importance of supporting autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(3), 215–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.University of Southeastern NorwayHonefossNorway
  3. 3.Institute for Positive Psychology and EducationAustralian Catholic UniversityNorth SydneyAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Alicia Lyon-Limke McLean
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Central Oklahoma EdmondEdmondUSA