Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Personality in Special Populations: Insights from Schizophrenia

  • Zahra KhalesiEmail author
  • Louis A. Schmidt
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2338-1


The discussion of personality in special populations has a long and rich history (e.g., Jung 1939), particularly in relation to one specific special population: individuals with schizophrenia. Researchers have queried which, if any, personality factors can contribute to the development and maintenance of schizophrenia pathology (e.g., Andersen and Bienvenu 2011; Simonson and Newton-Howes 2018).

Personality constructs are often viewed as a lens by which individuals view and react to the world. They reflect a characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving in response to external situations (Andersen and Bienvenu 2011). These personality constructs are thought to be in part genetically determined and relatively stable throughout adulthood. Temperament (e.g., shyness and sociability) represents the early features of personality that are present at birth and can be considered as the building blocks to personality traits (Mathewson et al. 2017). Personality can be...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Andersen, A. M., & Bienvenu, O. J. (2011). Personality and psychopathology. International Review of Psychiatry, 23(3), 234–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrowclough, C., & Hooley, J. M. (2003). Attributions and expressed emotion: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(6), 849–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beauchamp, M. C., Lecomte, T., Lecomte, C., Leclerc, C., & Corbière, M. (2006). Do people with a first episode of psychosis differ in personality profiles? Schizophrenia Research, 85(1–3), 162–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyette, L. L., Korver-Nieberg, N., Verweij, K., Meijer, C., Dingemans, P., Cahn, W., & de Haan, L. (2013). Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls. Psychiatry Research, 210(2), 491–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyette, L. L., van Dam, D., Meijer, C., Velthorst, E., Cahn, W., de Haan, L., … & Wiersma, D. (2014). Personality compensates for impaired quality of life and social functioning in patients with psychotic disorders who experienced traumatic events. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(6), 1356–1365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyette, L. L., Nederlof, J., Meijer, C., de Boer, F., & de Haan, L. (2015). Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. Psychiatry Research, 229(1–2), 539–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camisa, K. M., Bockbrader, M. A., Lysaker, P., Rae, L. L., Brenner, C. A., & O’Donnell, B. F. (2005). Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders. Psychiatry Research, 133(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Couture, S., Lecomte, T., & Leclerc, C. (2007). Personality characteristics and attachment in first episode psychosis: Impact on social functioning. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(8), 631–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldberg, J. O., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Shyness, sociability, and social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 48(2–3), 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jetha, M. K., Schmidt, L. A., & Goldberg, J. O. (2007). Stability of shyness, sociability, and social dysfunction in schizophrenia: A preliminary investigation of the influence of social skills training in a community-based stable outpatient sample. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 21(3), 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jetha, M. K., Goldberg, J. O., & Schmidt, L. A. (2013). Temperament and its relation to social functioning in schizophrenia. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59(3), 254–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jung, C. G. (1939). On the psychogenesis of schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science, 85(358), 999–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kentros, M. K., Terkelsen, K., Hull, J., Smith, T. E., & Goodman, M. (1997). The relationship between personality and quality of life in persons with schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research, 6(2), 118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khalesi, Z., Jetha, M. K., Poole, K. L., Goldberg, J. O., Van Lieshout, R. J., & Schmidt, L. A. (2018). Shyness, hormones, and quality of life among adults with schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuroscience, 1–11.Google Scholar
  16. Lambert, M., & Naber, D. (2004). Current issues in schizophrenia: Overview of patient acceptability, functioning capacity and quality of life. CNS Drugs, 18(2), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lieberman, J., Jody, D., Geisler, S., Alvir, J., Loebel, A., Szymanski, S., … & Borenstein, M. (1993). Time course and biologic correlates of treatment response in first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(5), 369-376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lysaker, P. H., & Taylor, A. C. (2007). Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: Associations with symptoms and coping concurrently and 12 months later. Psychopathology, 40(5), 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lysaker, P. H., Bell, M. D., Kaplan, E., Conway Greig, T., & Bryson, G. J. (1999). Personality and psychopathology in schizophrenia: The association between personality traits and symptoms. Psychiatry, 62(1), 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lysaker, P. H., Wilt, M. A., Plascak-Hallberg, C. D., Brenner, C. A., & Clements, C. A. (2003). Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: Associations with symptoms and coping. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(2), 80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mathewson, K. J., Tang, A., Fortier, P., Miskovic, V., & Schmidt, L. A. (2017). Individual differences in temperament: Definition, measurement, and outcomes. In C. Bryne, S. Castelnovo, G. Tomalin, & J. Williams (Eds.), Elsevier reference module in neuroscience and biobehavioral psychology (pp. 1–11). New York: Elsevier Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miskovic, M., Ravanic, D., Bankovic, D., Zivlak-Radulovic, N., Banjac, V., & Dragisic, T. (2018). The risk model of developing schizophrenia based on temperament and character. Psychiatria Danubina, 30(1), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Raffard, S., Bortolon, C., Stephan, Y., Capdevielle, D., & Van der Linden, M. (2017). Personality traits are associated with the valence of future imagined events in individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 253, 138–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ridgewell, C., Blackford, J. U., McHugo, M., & Heckers, S. (2017). Personality traits predicting quality of life and overall functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 182, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ritsner, M. S., & Blumenkrantz, H. (2007). Predicting domain-specific insight of schizophrenia patients from symptomatology, multiple neurocognitive functions, and personality related traits. Psychiatry Research, 149(1–3), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ritsner, M., Ben-Avi, I., Ponizovsky, A., Timinsky, I., Bistrov, E., & Modai, I. (2003). Quality of life and coping with schizophrenia symptoms. Quality of Life Research, 12(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Simonsen, E., & Newton-Howes, G. (2018). Personality pathology and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(6), 1180–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Szymanski, S., Lieberman, J. A., Alvir, J. M., Mayerhoff, D., Loebel, A., Geisler, S., … & Woerner, M. (1995). Gender differences in onset of illness, treatment response, course, and biologic indexes in first-episode schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(5), 698–703.Google Scholar
  30. Vrbova, K., Prasko, J., Holubova, M., Slepecky, M., & Ociskova, M. (2018). Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their relation to depression, anxiety, hope, self-stigma and personality traits–a cross-sectional study. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 39(1), 9–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & BehaviorMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Virgil Zeigler-Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA