Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Heterogeneity in Personality: Perspectives from Shyness

  • Kristie L. PooleEmail author
  • Louis A. Schmidt
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2337-1


Personality styles are most often conceptualized and analyzed as homogenous constructs. This approach is potentially problematic, given heterogeneity even among individuals who are classified under the same broader personality style. It is important to identify heterogeneity in personality, as this allows for greater precision in understanding the social, emotional, and biological foundations of different personality styles. Perhaps most importantly, accounting for heterogeneity in personality allows us to identify certain subsets of individuals who may display distinct adaptive or maladaptive outcomes across development, and enhance prediction of future behavior. In the current chapter, we focus on the personality style of shyness and provide an overview of theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting heterogeneity in shyness, as well as discuss differences in the origins, developmental course, and outcomes of different shy phenotypes. Broadly speaking, shyness can be...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, & BehaviorMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Virgil Zeigler-Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA