Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Psychedelic Drugs and Personality

  • James. W. B. ElseyEmail author
  • Linos Vossoughi
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2306-1

Synonyms

Definition

Classic psychedelics are a class of psychoactive drugs that reliably produce dramatic changes in consciousness, with alterations in perception, thought, and feeling rarely experienced outside of dreams or religious/spiritual ecstasy. At the neurobiological level, classical psychedelics primarily exert their effects through agonistic activity at 5-HT2Areceptors and appear to disrupt typical patterns of brain connectivity, causing more disorganized or “entropic” brain activity. Acute effects of psychedelics can involve hallucinations, ego dissolution, and a feeling of unity with the universe. “Complete mystical experiences” are also possible and are characterized by a feeling of unity with the cosmos, transcendence of time and space, loss of self, a sense of awe and revelation, and a profound positive mood. Days to weeks after a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Goodwin, G. M. (2017). The therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs: Past, present, and future. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11), 2105–2113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Elsey, J. W. (2017). Psychedelic drug use in healthy individuals: A review of benefits, costs, and implications for drug policy. Drug Science, Policy and Law, 3.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2050324517723232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Erritzoe, D., Roseman, L., Nour, M. M., MacLean, K., Kaelen, M., Nutt, D. J., & Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018). Effects of psilocybin therapy on personality structure. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 138(5), 368–378. Electronic edition ahead of publication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johansen, P. Ø., & Krebs, T. S. (2015). Psychedelics not linked to mental health problems or suicidal behavior: A population study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(3), 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lebedev, A. V., Kaelen, M., Lövdén, M., Nilsson, J., Feilding, A., Nutt, D. J., & Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2016). LSD-induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change. Human Brain Mapping, 37(9), 3203–3213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1453–1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nutt, D. J., King, L. A., & Nichols, D. E. (2013). Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(8), 577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tagliazucchi, E., Carhart-Harris, R., Leech, R., Nutt, D., & Chialvo, D. R. (2014). Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience. Human Brain Mapping, 35(11), 5442–5456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Section editors and affiliations

  • Virgil Zeigler-Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA