Social Class Differences
Researchers often define objective social class as one’s position in the society based on their education, occupation, and income level, whereas subjective social class refers to one’s perception of their own position in the society relative to others (Kraus and Stephens 2012). Social class differences are differences that emerge across individuals from relatively higher (middle or upper) and lower (working) social classes in psychological tendencies, as well as in outcomes in domains such as health and education.
Social class corresponds to a material and symbolic world that people inhabit and regularly engage with, as opposed to being an inherent property of individuals; it plays an important role in shaping their psychological patterns, as well as health and education outcomes (Kraus and Stephens 2012; Snibbe and Markus 2005). Objective indicators of social class that researchers commonly use include income,...
- Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, L. T. (2012). A cultural mismatch: Independent cultural norms produce greater increases in cortisol and more negative emotions among first-generation college students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1389–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar