Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Self-Concept Content

  • Christian H. Jordan
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1160-1

Synonyms

Definition

The self-concept is one’s full set of beliefs about oneself or self-knowledge. It includes beliefs about personal characteristics, such as traits, abilities, values, preferences, and opinions, as well as beliefs about one’s social identities, such as social roles, relationships, and social groups. It is, in essence, the beliefs one can draw on to answer the question, “Who am I?”

Introduction

People generally have little trouble understanding what is meant by “the self” and can recognize continuity in their subjective experiences and identities. But the self is actually quite difficult to define clearly (see Baumeister 1998). What exactly is “the self,” and how might it be studied empirically? Although these are important questions, the self-concept represents only one part of the self and is comparatively easy to define. The self-concept is one’s full set of beliefs about oneself or self-knowledge. The highly developed...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 680–740). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, J. D., & Fehr, B. A. (1990). Self-esteem and perceptions of conveyed impressions: Is negative affectivity associated with greater realism? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  4. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kihlstrom, J. F., & Cantor, N. (1984). Mental representations of the self. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 1–47). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  7. Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Markus, H., & Kunda, Z. (1986). Stability and malleability of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marsh, H. W. (1987). The big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 280–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marsh, H. W., & Craven, R. G. (2006). Reciprocal effects of self-concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: Beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 35, 63–78.Google Scholar
  12. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Sedikides, C. (1993). Assessment, enhancement, and verification determinants of the self-evaluation process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 317–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Segal, Z. V. (1988). Appraisal of the self-schema construct in cognitive models of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shrauger, J. S., & Schoeneman, T. J. (1979). Symbolic interactionist view of self-concept: Through the looking glass darkly. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 549–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Swann, W. B. (1987). Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1038–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Trope, Y. (1986). Self-enhancement and self-assessment in achievement behavior. In R. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 350–368). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Christian H. Jordan
    • 1
  1. 1.Wilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada