X-Ray Tomography

  • Johann KastnerEmail author
  • Christoph Heinzl
Reference work entry


Over the past years, a large number of novel X-ray imaging and data processing methods have been developed. The application areas of X-ray computed tomography (XCT) are highly diverse and extensive, since any material or component may be examined using XCT. The major application areas of XCT in science and industry are found in nondestructive testing, 3D materials characterization, and dimensional measurements (metrology). The nonmedical XCT market is steadily growing, but the full potential of this technique for industrial applications has not been exploited yet. There are many useful XCT applications which still have to be discovered. This chapter provides an overview of the principles of XCT, of drawbacks such as measurement artifacts as well as their correction, of different XCT methods and scanning protocols, as well as of applications of XCT. The focus of this chapter lies on XCT for materials simulation and high-resolution, quantitative, in situ, and phase-contrast XCT.



This work was supported by the project “Multimodal and in-situ characterization of inhomogeneous materials” (MiCi) of the federal government of Upper Austria and the European Regional Development Fund (EFRE) in the framework of the EU program IWB2020. The research leading to these results has also received funding from the FFG Bridge Early Stage, project no. 851249 (“Advanced multimodal data analysis and visualization of composites based on grating interferometer micro-CT data (ADAM)”) as well as from the FWF-FWO 2016 Lead Agency Call for Joint Projects, project no. I3261-N36/S004217 N (“Quantitative X-ray tomography of advanced polymer composites”).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Applied Sciences Upper AustriaWelsAustria

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ida Nathan
    • 1
  • Norbert Meyendorf
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.Center for Nondestructive EvaluationIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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