The current chapter deals with scanning acoustic microscopy, a laboratory based high-precision ultrasonic NDE method for detailed investigations of the inner structure of solid materials and components. At the beginning, a short introduction into acoustic microscopy and its preferences is given. In part 2, the basics of ultrasonic wave propagation in an acoustic microscope are explained in terms of wave front snapshots calculated by numerical simulations. In part 3, the typical instrumentation of a Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) used in NDE is presented and some common applications are briefly discussed. In part 4, a comprehensive case study on SAM of resistance spot welding is presented, an exemplary and highly relevant application especially for the automotive industry. In the last two parts of this chapter, advanced imaging techniques for larger depths are presented, the first one based on a SAM adapted implementation of the 3D-SAFT algorithm (Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) and the second one using a specific transducer geometry with outstanding performance, a conical annular array.
The authors would like to thank Peter Krueger and Sven Fischer of IKTS (former IZFP-D) for the X-ray CT of the specimen in section “Advanced 3D SAM Imaging” and for helpful discussions.
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