Low Field Methods (GMR, Hall Probes, etc.)

  • Vivek T. Rathod
  • Portia Banerjee
  • Yiming DengEmail author
Reference work entry


Low-field nondestructive evaluation techniques have witnessed considerable improvements with the development of highly sensitive magnetic field sensors. Low-field techniques have brought several advantages like high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, and improved detection capabilities. This chapter begins with the importance of high-frequency eddy current testing and its limitation due to skin effect. It further presents the recently developed pulsed eddy current-based NDE to overcome the skin effect. Subsequently, this chapter presents the developments on increasing the sensitivity of low-field sensors by developing new probe designs and materials. A subsection presents the principles of operation of the available low-field sensors. The implementation of these low-field sensors in nondestructive evaluation is discussed. It also presents methods to reduce the sensor size for low footprints and increase the sensitivity. The chapter discusses the application of the low-field sensors in a detailed subsection with details on the implementation, its capabilities, and advantages. Finally, the chapter discusses the nondestructive applications of the low-field sensors with details on the implementation, its capabilities, and advantages.



This work was partially supported by the US Department of Energy under the award number: DE-FE0031650.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivek T. Rathod
    • 1
  • Portia Banerjee
    • 2
  • Yiming Deng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.NDE Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.SGT Inc., NASA Ames Research CenterMountain ViewUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Nathan Ida
    • 1
  • Norbert Meyendorf
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.Chemical Materials and Bio EngineeringUniversity of DaytonDaytonUSA

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