Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Body-Esteem Scale

  • Stephen FranzoiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_8


The Body-Esteem Scale – Revised is a 28-item gender-specific multidimensional measure of body esteem for women (sexual attractiveness, weight concern, physical condition) and men (sexual attractiveness, upper body strength, physical condition). Respondents rate specific body parts and functions using a five-point Likert scale (“strong negative feelings” to “strong positive feelings”).


Body esteem, an important dimension of self-esteem, refers to self-evaluations of the body. Formal body-esteem research has been conducted for over 75 years, but prior to the mid-1980s researchers had assumed that body esteem was both unidimensional and identical for women and men. Yet when Franzoi and Shields (1984) investigated Secord and Jourard’s (1953) Body-Cathexis Scale (BCS) using principal components analyses (PCAs), they found clear evidence that body esteem was not unidimensional nor were the multiple factors similar for women and men. In other words, these findings...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bak-Sosnowska, M., Naworska, B., Owczarek, A., Chudek, J., Skrzypulec-Plinta, V., & Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M. (2014). Coping with overweight strategies, self-esteem and body-esteem in the context of transactional analysis. Psychiatria Polska, 48, 477–487.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Franko, D. L., Jenkins, A., Roehrig, J. P., Luce, K. H., Crowther, J. H., & Rodgers, R. F. (2012). Psychometric properties of measures of eating disorder risk in Latina college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45, 592–596.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Franzoi, S. L., & Chang, Z. (2002). The body esteem of Hmong and Caucasian young adults. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 89–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Franzoi, S. L., & Koehler, V. (1998). Age and gender differences in body attitudes: A comparison of young and elderly adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 47, 1–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Franzoi, S. L., & Shields, S. A. (1984). The body esteem scale: Multidimensional structure and sex differences in a college population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 173–178.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Frost, K. A., Franzoi, S. L., Oswald, D. L., & Shields, S. A. (2017). Revising the Body Esteem Scale with a U.S. college student sample: Evaluation, validation, and uses for the BES-R. Sex Roles.Google Scholar
  7. Kornblau, I. S., Pearson, H. C., & Breitkopf, C. R. (2007). Demographic, behavioral, and physical correlates of body esteem among low-income female adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 566–570.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Lipowska, M., & Lipowski, M. (2013). Polish normalization of the body esteem scale. Health Psychology Report, 1, 72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Oswald, D. L., Franzoi, S. L., & Frost, K. A. (2012). Experiencing sexism and young women’s body esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31, 1112–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Seal, B. N., Bradford, A., & Meston, C. M. (2009). The association between body esteem and sexual desire among college women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 866–872.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Secord, P. F., & Jourard, S. M. (1953). The appraisal of body-cathexis: Body-cathexis and the self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 343–347.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Striegel-Moore, R. H., Tucker, N., & Hsu, J. (1990). Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in lesbian college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 493–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Swami, V., Stieger, S., Haubner, T., & Voracek, M. (2008). German translation and psychometric evaluation of the body appreciation scale. Body Image, 5, 122–127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Wade, T. J. (2000). Evolutionary theory and self-perception: Sex differences in body esteem predictors of self-perceived physical and sexual attractiveness and self-esteem. International Journal of Psychology, 35, 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA