Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Amygdala

  • Richard Matta
  • Elena Choleris
  • Martin KavaliersEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_726

Synonyms

Definition

The amygdala is an almond-shaped bilateral group of nuclei located anterior to the hippocampus within the medial temporal lobe of the telencephalon. The various nuclei receive inputs from, and have outputs to, diverse brain regions associated with sensory and behavioral/physiological processes. The amygdala is associated with both positive and negative emotion regulation as well as having a role in learning and memory processes.

Introduction

Located medially within the temporal lobe of the brain (see Fig. 1), the amygdala receives its name from the Greek word for “almond,” which describes its general shape. The amygdala is not an individual region. Rather, it consists of multiple subregions: medial nucleus, central nucleus, lateral nucleus, cortical nucleus, basal nucleus, accessory basal nucleus, and intercalating nuclei (see Fig. 2). Outputs of the amygdala include the prefrontal cortex, polymodal association cortex,...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Charney, D. (2003). Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 108(417), 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Choleris, E., Little, S. R., Mong, J. A., Puram, S. V., Langer, R., & Pfaff, D. W. (2007). Microparticle-based delivery of oxytocin receptor antisense DNA in the medial amygdala blocks social recognition in female mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(11), 4670–4675.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. De Martino, B., Camerer, C. F., & Adolphs, R. (2010). Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(8), 3788–3792.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Engman, J., Linnman, C., Van Dijk, K. R. A., & Milad, M. R. (2016). Amygdala subnuclei resting-state functional connectivity sex and estrogen differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 34–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gruene, T. M., Flick, K., Stefano, A., Shea, S. D., & Shansky, R. M. (2015). Sexually divergent expression of active and passive conditioned fear responses in rats. eLife, 4, e11352.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. LeDoux, J. (2007). The amygdala. Current Biology, 17(20), R868–R874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. McGough, L. J., Cahill, L., & Roozendaal, B. (1996). Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: interaction with other brain systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(24), 13508–13514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Meunier, M., & Bachevalier, J. (2002). Comparison of emotional responses in monkeys with rhinal cortex or amygdala lesions. Emotion, 2(2), 147–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Murray, E. A. (2007). The amygdala, reward and emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(11), 489–497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Phelps, E. A., & LeDoux, J. E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48(2), 175–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Qin, S., Young, C. B., Duan, X., Chen, T., & Menon, V. (2014). Amygdala subregional structure and intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in anxiety during early childhood. Biological Psychiatry, 75(11), 892–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Matta
    • 1
  • Elena Choleris
    • 1
  • Martin Kavaliers
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Neuroscience ProgramUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Julie Schermer
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Western OntarioLondonCanada