Shyness and Sociability
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Shyness and sociability are conceptualized as distinct social-motivational-behavioral tendencies (Asendorpf 1990; Cheek and Buss 1981). Shyness is defined as social withdrawal-related tendencies in social situations reflected by active avoidance and an anxious preoccupation with the self in response to real or imagined social interactions. In contrast, sociability is defined as social approach tendencies or a preference to be with others rather than being alone.
Shyness and sociability are not only conceptually independent personality traits, but they are also empirically orthogonal. Shyness and sociability are linked to distinct behavioral and psychophysiological correlates observed across humans and nonhuman animals, which indicate deep roots of these two personality dimensions in our evolutionary history. In humans, the independence of shyness and sociability has been replicated across development...
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