Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Social Cooperation

  • Mateo Peñaherrera-AguirreEmail author
  • James Zerbe
  • Heitor B. F. Fernandes
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1578

Definition

Interaction(s) among two or more actors, leading to the increased fitness of the parties involved.

Introduction

Cooperation has been considered an evolutionary conundrum, wherein according to evolutionary theory free-riders accrue greater individual payoffs in comparison to cooperators in social interaction (Dawkins 2006). This imbalance is considered to allow cheaters to invade a population, driving cooperative strategies to extinction. Socioecological pressures have also been found to promote the emergence of defection, as inter-individual interactions that involve cheating, manipulation, or simply lack of cooperative efforts have been found to be associated with unstable and unpredictable ecologies for which long-term investments (including investments in long-term cooperative relationships or community efforts) do not offer reliable rewards (Figueredo et al. 2006).

With the purpose of solving this biological conundrum, numerous perspectives have been developed in the...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mateo Peñaherrera-Aguirre
    • 1
    Email author
  • James Zerbe
    • 2
  • Heitor B. F. Fernandes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.School of Human Evolution and Social ChangeArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jon Sefcek
    • 1
  1. 1.Kent State UniversityKentUSA