Interaction(s) among two or more actors, leading to the increased fitness of the parties involved.
Cooperation has been considered an evolutionary conundrum, wherein according to evolutionary theory free-riders accrue greater individual payoffs in comparison to cooperators in social interaction (Dawkins 2006). This imbalance is considered to allow cheaters to invade a population, driving cooperative strategies to extinction. Socioecological pressures have also been found to promote the emergence of defection, as inter-individual interactions that involve cheating, manipulation, or simply lack of cooperative efforts have been found to be associated with unstable and unpredictable ecologies for which long-term investments (including investments in long-term cooperative relationships or community efforts) do not offer reliable rewards (Figueredo et al. 2006).
With the purpose of solving this biological conundrum, numerous perspectives have been developed in the...
- Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2013). A cooperative species: Human reciprocity and its evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2005). The origin and evolution of cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (2006). The selfish gene (30th ann. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., … Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26(2), 243–275.Google Scholar
- Fraser, B. (2013). False advertisement in biological markets: Partner choice and the problem of reliability. In K. Sterelny, R. Joyce, B. Calcott, & B. Fraser (Eds.), Cooperation and its evolution (pp. 153–174). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Henrich, J., Boyd, R., Bowles, S., Camerer, C., Fehr, E., Gintis, H., … Henrich, N. S. (2005). “Economic man” in cross-cultural perspective: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(6), 795–815.Google Scholar
- Noë, R., van Hoof, J. A. R. M., & Hammerstein, P. (2006). Economics in nature: Social dilemmas, mate choice and biological markets. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar