Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Esteem Needs

  • Stefano I. Di DomenicoEmail author
  • Marc A. Fournier
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1465


Within Maslow’s hierarchical organization of motives and theory of personality development (Maslow 1943), esteem needs refer to people’s desires to have a stable and realistically positive evaluation of themselves. Maslow (1943) conceptualized esteem needs as a broad category of motivations that consist of two distinct but related sets of strivings. One set of esteem needs consists of people’s desires for achievement, competence, and mastery. The other set of esteem needs consists of people’s desires for admiration, status, and respect from others. Maslow (1943) described the satisfaction of esteem motives as being reflected in feelings of efficacy and confidence, and the thwarting of these desires in feelings of discouragement and inferiority. According to Maslow’s (1943) hierarchical account, esteem needs become salient only after one has sufficiently satisfied the more primary desires for love, affection, and belongingness; in turn, motivations toward self-actualization...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Positive Psychology and EducationAustralian Catholic UniversityStrathfieldAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Toronto ScarboroughTorontoCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ilan Dar-Nimrod
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneySydneyAustralia