Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Sex Differences in Self-Esteem

  • Ruth Yasemin ErolEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1181


Global self-esteem is defined as an individual’s subjective evaluation of his or her worth as a person (Leary and Baumeister 2000). This entry focuses on differences between men and women in self-esteem.


There is widespread interest among academics as well as the general public in various aspects of self-esteem. One particularly interesting question is whether there is a difference in self-esteem between men and women.

Sex Differences in Self-Esteem

Many studies have examined gender and age differences in self-esteem. Although there were conflicting results in earlier studies in that some studies found higher self-esteem for men and other studies found no significant difference at all, several meta-analyses (e.g., Kling et al. 1999; Twenge and Campbell 2001) and recent longitudinal studies (e.g., Orth et al. 2010) suggest that men tend to have slightly higher self-esteem than women. However, the difference is rather small and not consistent across the life-span...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BernSwitzerland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Christian Jordan
    • 1
  1. 1.Wilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada