Advertisement

Colorectal Cancer in Elderly Patients: Considerations in Treatment and Management

  • Carrie Y. Peterson
  • Jaqueline Blank
  • Kirk LudwigEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

America’s population is aging, and the number over the age of 80 will double by the year 2050. This, combined with the fact that colorectal cancer is a common malignancy, with an increasing incidence with age, explains why treating the elderly patient with colorectal cancer is becoming increasingly commonplace. This chapter focuses on how the disease may present differently in elderly patients; how the risks of treatment and surgery can be assessed and used to guide treatment decisions; how various aspects of colorectal cancer treatment may be different, or the same, for geriatric patients; and finally, how outcomes in the perioperative period can be optimized by choices in surgical technique and perioperative care. Caring for these elderly patients requires considerable skill and judgment that takes into consideration their comorbidities, the various options for treatment, and a global understanding of how the risk and benefit equation works for the various treatments such that appropriate care is rendered to optimize short-term outcomes balanced with the desire to achieve good long-term cancer control.

References

  1. 1.
    Ortman JM, Velkoff VA, Hogan H (2014) An aging nation: the older population in the united states. Current Population Reports. https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf
  2. 2.
    National comprehensive cancer network, clinical practice guidelines: colon cancer version 2.2017. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colon.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017
  3. 3.
    National comprehensive cancer network, clinical practice guidelines: rectal cancer version 3.2017. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/rectal.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017
  4. 4.
    Hubbard JM (2016) Management of colorectal cancer in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 32(1):97–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang GJ, Kaiser AM, Mills S, Rafferty JF, Buie WD (2012) Standards Practice Task Force of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Practice parameters for the management of colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 55(8):831–843PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National cancer institute: surveillance, epidemiology and end results program. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/all.html. Accessed 26 July 2017
  7. 7.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fedewa SA et al (2017) Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin 67(3):177–193PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eddy DM (1990) Screening for colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med 113(5):373–384PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nascimbeni R, Di Fabio F, Di Betta E, Salerni B (2009) The changing impact of age on colorectal cancer surgery. A trend analysis. Color Dis 11(1):13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin KM, Shashidharan M, Thorson AG et al (1998) Cumulative incidence of colorectal and extracolonic cancers in MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg 2(1):67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jess T, Simonsen J, Jorgensen KT, Pedersen BV, Nielsen NM, Frisch M (2012) Decreasing risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease over 30 years. Gastroenterology 143(2):375–381.e1; quiz e13–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taleban S, Elquza E, Gower-Rousseau C, Peyrin-Biroulet L (2016) Cancer and inflammatory bowel disease in the elderly. Dig Liver Dis 48(10):1105–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van den Broek CB, Dekker JW, Bastiaannet E et al (2011) The survival gap between middle-aged and elderly colon cancer patients. Time trends in treatment and survival. Eur J Surg Oncol 37(10):904–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mothes H, Bauschke A, Schuele S, Eigendorff E, Altendorf-Hofmann A, Settmacher U (2017) Surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: How can we improve outcome? J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 143(9):1879–1889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dekker JW, van den Broek CB, Bastiaannet E, van de Geest LG, Tollenaar RA, Liefers GJ (2011) Importance of the first postoperative year in the prognosis of elderly colorectal cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol 18(6):1533–1539PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rabeneck L, Davila JA, Thompson M, El-Serag HB (2004) Outcomes in elderly patients following surgery for colorectal cancer in the veterans affairs health care system. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 20(10):1115–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamano T, Yamauchi S, Kimura K et al (2017) Influence of age and comorbidity on prognosis and application of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly japanese patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective multicentre study. Eur J Cancer 81:90–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marusch F, Koch A, Schmidt U et al (2005) The impact of the risk factor “age” on the early postoperative results of surgery for colorectal carcinoma and its significance for perioperative management. World J Surg 29(8):1013–1021; discussion 1021–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simmonds PD, Best L, George S, Baughan C, et al (2000) Surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: a systematic review. Colorectal cancer collaborative group. Lancet 356(9234): 968–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kunitake H, Zingmond DS, Ryoo J, Ko CY (2010) Caring for octogenarian and nonagenarian patients with colorectal cancer: what should our standards and expectations be? Dis Colon Rectum 53(5):735–743PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greenblatt DY, Weber SM, O’Connor ES, LoConte NK, Liou JI, Smith MA (2010) Readmission after colectomy for cancer predicts one-year mortality. Ann Surg 251(4):659–669PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mandel JS, Bond JH, Bradley M et al (1989) Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictivity of the hemoccult test in screening for colorectal cancers. the university of minnesota’s colon cancer control study. Gastroenterology 97(3):597–600PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH et al (2014) Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 370(14):1287–1297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC et al (2016) Screening for colorectal cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA 315(23):2564–2575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lopez NE, Peterson CY (2016) Advances in biomarkers: going beyond the carcinoembryonic antigen. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 29(3):196–204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Edge SB, Compton CC (2010) The American joint committee on cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM. Ann Surg Oncol 17(6):1471–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    American joint committee on cancer: implementation of AJCC 8th edition cancer staging system. https://cancerstaging.org/About/news/Pages/Implementation-of-AJCC-8th-Edition-Cancer-Staging-System.aspx. Accessed 26 July 2017
  28. 28.
    Mitchell ED, Pickwell-Smith B, Macleod U (2015) Risk factors for emergency presentation with lung and colorectal cancers: a systematic review. BMJ Open 5(4):e006965-2014-006965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kolfschoten NE, Wouters MW, Gooiker GA et al (2012) Nonelective colon cancer resections in elderly patients: results from the Dutch surgical colorectal audit. Dig Surg 29(5):412–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kopetz S, Chang GJ, Overman MJ et al (2009) Improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer is associated with adoption of hepatic resection and improved chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 27(22):3677–3683PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Treska V, Fichtl J, Bruha J, Liska V, Kormunda S, Finek J (2017) Liver resections for colorectal metastases in patients aged over 75 years. Anticancer Res 37(3):1529–1533PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ruers T, Punt C, Van Coevorden F et al (2012) Radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic treatment versus systemic treatment alone in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases: a randomized EORTC intergroup phase II study (EORTC 40004). Ann Oncol 23(10):2619–2626PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tanis E, Nordlinger B, Mauer M et al (2014) Local recurrence rates after radiofrequency ablation or resection of colorectal liver metastases. analysis of the european organisation for research and treatment of cancer #40004 and #40983. Eur J Cancer 50(5):912–919PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lim KH, Lee HY, Park SB, Song SY (2017) Feasibility of modified FOLFOX in elderly patients aged >/=80 years with metastatic gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. Oncology 93(2):115–121PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Twelves C, Gollins S, Grieve R, Samuel L (2006) A randomised cross-over trial comparing patient preference for oral capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin regimens in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol 17(2):239–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Twelves C, Wong A, Nowacki MP et al (2005) Capecitabine as adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer. N Engl J Med 352(26):2696–2704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Twelves CJ, Butts CA, Cassidy J et al (2005) Capecitabine/oxaliplatin, a safe and active first-line regimen for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: post hoc analysis of a large phase II study. Clin Colorectal Cancer 5(2):101–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seymour MT, Thompson LC, Wasan HS et al (2011) Chemotherapy options in elderly and frail patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MRC FOCUS2): an open-label, randomised factorial trial. Lancet 377(9779):1749–1759PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aparicio T, Jouve JL, Teillet L et al (2013) Geriatric factors predict chemotherapy feasibility: ancillary results of FFCD 2001-02 phase III study in first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in elderly patients. J Clin Oncol 31(11):1464–1470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Scappaticci FA, Skillings JR, Holden SN et al (2007) Arterial thromboembolic events in patients with metastatic carcinoma treated with chemotherapy and bevacizumab. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(16):1232–1239PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sondenaa K, Quirke P, Hohenberger W et al (2014) The rationale behind complete mesocolic excision (CME) and a central vascular ligation for colon cancer in open and laparoscopic surgery: proceedings of a consensus conference. Int J Color Dis 29(4):419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    MacFarlane JK, Ryall RD, Heald RJ (1993) Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Lancet 341(8843):457–460PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fagard K, Leonard S, Deschodt M et al (2016) The impact of frailty on postoperative outcomes in individuals aged 65 and over undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer: a systematic review. J Geriatr Oncol 7(6):479–491PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J et al (2001) Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56(3):M146–M156PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Theou O, Cann L, Blodgett J, Wallace LM, Brothers TD, Rockwood K (2015) Modifications to the frailty phenotype criteria: systematic review of the current literature and investigation of 262 frailty phenotypes in the survey of health, ageing, and retirement in europe. Ageing Res Rev 21:78–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Searle SD, Mitnitski A, Gahbauer EA, Gill TM, Rockwood K (2008) A standard procedure for creating a frailty index. BMC Geriatr 8:24-2318-8-24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ommundsen N, Wyller TB, Nesbakken A et al (2014) Frailty is an independent predictor of survival in older patients with colorectal cancer. Oncologist 19(12):1268–1275PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lund CM, Vistisen KK, Dehlendorff C, Ronholt F, Johansen JS, Nielsen DL (2017) The effect of geriatric intervention in frail elderly patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a randomized trial (GERICO). BMC Cancer 17(1):448-017-3445-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wildiers H, Heeren P, Puts M et al (2014) International society of geriatric oncology consensus on geriatric assessment in older patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 32(24):2595–2603PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    National comprehensive cancer netwok guidelines: older adult oncology version 2.2017. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/senior.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017
  51. 51.
    Ommundsen N, Wyller TB, Nesbakken A et al (2018) Preoperative geriatric assessment and tailored interventions in frail older patients with colorectal cancer. A randomised controlled trial. Colorectal Dis 20(1):16–25PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Poldermans D, Boersma E, Bax JJ et al (1999) The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Dutch echocardiographic cardiac risk evaluation applying stress echocardiography study group. N Engl J Med 341(24):1789–1794PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rossini R, Angiolillo DJ, Musumeci G et al (2017) Antiplatelet therapy and outcome in patients undergoing surgery following coronary stenting: results of the surgery after stenting registry. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 89(1):E13–E25PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chumillas S, Ponce JL, Delgado F, Viciano V, Mateu M (1998) Prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications through respiratory rehabilitation: a controlled clinical study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79(1):5–9PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Doyle RL (1999) Assessing and modifying the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Chest 115(5 Suppl):77S–81SPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barao K, Abe Vicente Cavagnari M, Silva Fucuta P, Manoukian Forones N (2017) Association between nutrition status and survival in elderly patients with colorectal cancer. Nutr Clin Pract 32(5):658–663PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yamano T, Yoshimura M, Kobayashi M et al (2016) Malnutrition in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy is common and associated with treatment tolerability and anastomotic leakage. Int J Color Dis 31(4):877–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Makela JT, Kiviniemi H, Laitinen S (2003) Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after left-sided colorectal resection with rectal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 46(5):653–660PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abe Vicente M, Barao K, Silva TD, Forones NM (2013) What are the most effective methods for assessment of nutritional status in outpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer? Nutr Hosp 28(3):585–591PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jie B, Jiang ZM, Nolan MT, Zhu SN, Yu K, Kondrup J (2012) Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk. Nutrition 28(10):1022–1027PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Torosian MH (1999) Perioperative nutrition support for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: critical analysis and recommendations. World J Surg 23(6):565–569PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Burden S, Todd C, Hill J, Lal S (2012) Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD008879PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nygren J, Thacker J, Carli F et al (2012) Guidelines for perioperative care in elective rectal/pelvic surgery: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS(R)) society recommendations. Clin Nutr 31(6):801–816PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kehlet H, Wilmore DW (2002) Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome. Am J Surg 183(6):630–641PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fearon KC, Ljungqvist O, Von Meyenfeldt M et al (2005) Enhanced recovery after surgery: a consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr 24(3):466–477PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Varadhan KK, Neal KR, Dejong CH, Fearon KC, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN (2010) The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway for patients undergoing major elective open colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr 29(4):434–440PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li P, Fang F, Cai JX, Tang D, Li QG, Wang DR (2013) Fast-track rehabilitation vs conventional care in laparoscopic colorectal resection for colorectal malignancy: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 19(47):9119–9126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rumstadt B, Guenther N, Wendling P et al (2009) Multimodal perioperative rehabilitation for colonic surgery in the elderly. World J Surg 33(8):1757–1763PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gustafsson UO, Hausel J, Thorell A et al (2011) Adherence to the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol and outcomes after colorectal cancer surgery. Arch Surg 146(5):571–577PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wang G, Jiang ZW, Zhao K et al (2012) Fast track rehabilitation programme enhances functional recovery after laparoscopic colonic resection. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59(119):2158–2163PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jia Y, Jin G, Guo S et al (2014) Fast-track surgery decreases the incidence of postoperative delirium and other complications in elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg 399(1):77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Westhoff D, Witlox J, Koenderman L et al (2013) Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels and the risk of postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients. J Neuroinflammation 10:122-2094-10-122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bagnall NM, Malietzis G, Kennedy RH, Athanasiou T, Faiz O, Darzi A (2014) A systematic review of enhanced recovery care after colorectal surgery in elderly patients. Color Dis 16(12):947–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mann C, Pouzeratte Y, Boccara G et al (2000) Comparison of intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly after major abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 92(2):433–441PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Guay J, Nishimori M, Kopp S (2016) Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens for postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, vomiting and pain after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD001893PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    ASGE Standards of Practice Committee, Saltzman JR, Cash BD et al (2015) Bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 81(4):781–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bhattacharya B, Maung A, Barre K et al (2017) Postoperative delirium is associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stays after liver transplantation. J Surg Res 207:223–228PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Galyfos GC, Geropapas GE, Sianou A, Sigala F, Filis K (2017) Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients undergoing vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg 66(3):937–946PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Horacek R, Krnacova B, Prasko J, Latalova K (2016) Delirium as a complication of the surgical intensive care. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 12:2425–2434PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Peterson CY, Palazzi K, Parsons JK, Chang DC, Ramamoorthy SL (2014) The prevalence of laparoscopy and patient safety outcomes: an analysis of colorectal resections. Surg Endosc 28(2):608–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lacy AM, Garcia-Valdecasas JC, Delgado S et al (2002) Laparoscopy-assisted colectomy versus open colectomy for treatment of non-metastatic colon cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 359(9325):2224–2229PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jayne DG, Thorpe HC, Copeland J, Quirke P, Brown JM, Guillou PJ (2010) Five-year follow-up of the medical research council CLASICC trial of laparoscopically assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 97(11):1638–1645PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Colon Cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection Study Group, Buunen M, Veldkamp R et al (2009) Survival after laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: long-term outcome of a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Oncol 10(1):44–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Collinson FJ, Jayne DG, Pigazzi A et al (2012) An international, multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled, unblinded, parallel-group trial of robotic-assisted versus standard laparoscopic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer. Int J Color Dis 27(2):233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Venara A, Barbieux J, Mucci S, Talbot MF, Lermite E, Hamy A (2018) Short-term outcomes of colorectal resection for cancer in elderly in the era of enhanced recovery. Scand J Surg 107(1):31–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Juo YY, Hyder O, Haider AH, Camp M, Lidor A, Ahuja N (2014) Is minimally invasive colon resection better than traditional approaches?: first comprehensive national examination with propensity score matching. JAMA Surg 149(2):177–184PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fiscon V, Portale G, Frigo F, Migliorini G (2010) Laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer: matched comparison in elderly and younger patients. Tech Coloproctol 14(4):323–327PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Scarpa M, Di Cristofaro L, Cortinovis M et al (2013) Minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer: quality of life and satisfaction with care in elderly patients. Surg Endosc 27(8):2911–2920PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stocchi L, Nelson H, Young-Fadok TM, Larson DR, Ilstrup DM (2000) Safety and advantages of laparoscopic vs. open colectomy in the elderly: matched-control study. Dis Colon Rectum 43(3):326–332PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Aquina CT, Probst CP, Becerra AZ et al (2016) High volume improves outcomes: the argument for centralization of rectal cancer surgery. Surgery 159(3):736–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dimick JB, Cowan JA Jr, Upchurch GR Jr, Colletti LM (2003) Hospital volume and surgical outcomes for elderly patients with colorectal cancer in the united states. J Surg Res 114(1):50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rencuzogullari A, Benlice C, Valente M, Abbas MA, Remzi FH, Gorgun E (2017) Predictors of anastomotic leak in elderly patients after colectomy: nomogram-based assessment from the American college of surgeons national surgical quality program procedure-targeted cohort. Dis Colon Rectum 60(5):527–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Arenal JJ, Benito C, Concejo MP, Ortega E (1999) Colorectal resection and primary anastomosis in patients aged 70 and older: prospective study. Eur J Surg 165(6):593–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Poon RT, Law WL, Chu KW, Wong J (1998) Emergency resection and primary anastomosis for left-sided obstructing colorectal carcinoma in the elderly. Br J Surg 85(11):1539–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Battersby NJ, Juul T, Christensen P et al (2016) Predicting the risk of bowel-related quality-of-life impairment after restorative resection for rectal cancer: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Dis Colon Rectum 59(4):270–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Clancy C, Burke JP, Albert MR, O’Connell PR, Winter DC (2015) Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus standard transanal excision for the removal of rectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum 58(2):254–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Perez RO, Habr-Gama A, Lynn PB et al (2013) Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for residual rectal cancer (ypT0-2) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy: another word of caution. Dis Colon Rectum 56(1):6–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cercek A, Goodman KA, Hajj C et al (2014) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy first, followed by chemoradiation and then surgery, in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw 12(4):513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Habr-Gama A, Perez RO, Nadalin W et al (2004) Operative versus nonoperative treatment for stage 0 distal rectal cancer following chemoradiation therapy: long-term results. Ann Surg 240(4):711–717; discussion 717–718PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Levin TR, Allison JE, Lewis JD, Velayos F (2012) Incidence and mortality of colorectal adenocarcinoma in persons with inflammatory bowel disease from 1998 to 2010. Gastroenterology 143(2):382–389PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ross H, Steele SR, Varma M et al (2014) Practice parameters for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 57(1):5–22PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Delaney CP, Fazio VW, Remzi FH et al (2003) Prospective, age-related analysis of surgical results, functional outcome, and quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Ann Surg 238(2):221–228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Khan N, Cole E, Shah Y, Paulson EC (2017) Segmental resection is a safe oncologic alternative to total proctocolectomy in elderly patients with ulcerative colitis and malignancy. Colorectal Dis 19(12):1108–1116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sauer R, Fietkau R, Wittekind C et al (2003) Adjuvant vs. neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: the german trial CAO/ARO/AIO-94. Color Dis 5(5):406–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bergquist JR, Thiels CA, Spindler BA et al (2016) Benefit of postresection adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer in octogenarians: analysis of the national cancer database. Dis Colon Rectum 59(12):1142–1149PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Madbouly KM, Hussein AM (2015) Changing operative strategy from abdominoperineal resection to sphincter preservation in T3 low rectal cancer after downstaging by neoadjuvant chemoradiation: a preliminary report. World J Surg 39(5):1248–1256PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Margalit DN, Mamon HJ, Ancukiewicz M et al (2011) Tolerability of combined modality therapy for rectal cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(5):e735–e741PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pasetto LM, Friso ML, Pucciarelli S et al (2006) Rectal cancer neoadjuvant treatment in elderly patients. Anticancer Res 26(5B):3913–3923PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    International multicentre pooled analysis of colon cancer trials (IMPACT) investigators (1995) Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in colon cancer. Lancet 345(8955):939–944Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Quasar Collaborative Group, Gray R, Barnwell J et al (2007) Adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation in patients with colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Lancet 370(9604):2020–2029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McCleary NJ, Meyerhardt JA, Green E et al (2013) Impact of age on the efficacy of newer adjuvant therapies in patients with stage II/III colon cancer: findings from the ACCENT database. J Clin Oncol 31(20):2600–2606PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Huang XZ, Gao P, Song YX et al (2016) Impact of age on efficacy of postoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Oncotarget 7(15):19643–19653PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Andre T, Boni C, Navarro M et al (2009) Improved overall survival with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment in stage II or III colon cancer in the MOSAIC trial. J Clin Oncol 27(19):3109–3116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pachman DR, Qin R, Seisler DK et al (2015) Clinical course of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy: results from the randomized phase III trial N08CB (alliance). J Clin Oncol 33(30):3416–3422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Raphael MJ, Fischer HD, Fung K et al (2017) Neurotoxicity outcomes in a population-based cohort of elderly patients treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer 16:397–404PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Verghese J, Ambrose AF, Lipton RB, Wang C (2010) Neurological gait abnormalities and risk of falls in older adults. J Neurol 257(3):392–398PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tofthagen C, McAllister RD, McMillan SC (2011) Peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer receiving oxaliplatin. Clin J Oncol Nurs 15(2):182–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Aparicio T, Francois E, Cristol-Dalstein L et al (2016) PRODIGE 34-FFCD 1402-ADAGE: adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with resected stage III colon cancer: a randomized phase 3 trial. Dig Liver Dis 48(2):206–207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Antonio M, Saldana J, Carmona-Bayonas A et al (2017) Geriatric assessment predicts survival and competing mortality in elderly patients with early colorectal cancer: can it help in adjuvant therapy decision-making? Oncologist 22:934–943PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Steele SR, Chang GJ, Hendren S et al (2015) Practice guideline for the surveillance of patients after curative treatment of colon and rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 58(8):713–725PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kahi CJ, Boland CR, Dominitz JA et al (2016) Colonoscopy surveillance after colorectal cancer resection: recommendations of the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 150(3):758–768.e11PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    National comprehensive cancer network, clinical guidelines in oncology: colorectal cancer screening version 1.2017. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/colorectal_screening.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017
  123. 123.
    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B et al (2008) Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American cancer society, the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer, and the American college of radiology. Gastroenterology 134(5):1570–1595PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rex DK, Johnson DA, Anderson JC et al (2009) American college of gastroenterology guidelines for colorectal cancer screening 2009 [corrected]. Am J Gastroenterol 104(3):739–750PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Oliver AL et al (2011) Neoplastic disease of the colon and rectum. In: Principles and practice of geriatric surgery, 1st edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hyman NH (2013) Carcinoma of the colon. In: Corman’s colon and rectal surgery, 6th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rosenberg BL, Morris AM (2010) Colectomy. In: Current procedures: surgery. The McGraw-Hill Companies, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carrie Y. Peterson
    • 1
  • Jaqueline Blank
    • 2
  • Kirk Ludwig
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Colorectal SurgeryMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jason Johanning
    • 1
  • Sandhya Lagoo-Deenadayalan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Duke MedicineDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations