Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Outer Ear, The

  • Michael KhalilEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_989-1



The outer ear is responsible to capture sound in the environment.


The outer parts of the ear are responsible for capturing sounds from the environment and transmitting them to the latter parts of the ear for further processing. The outer ear consists of the pinna (auricle) and the ear canal (external auditory meatus).

The Pinna

The outer ear, otherwise called external ear, is consisted of the pinna, otherwise called the auricle (see Moller 2013; Seikel et al. 2010), the ear canal, otherwise called external auditory meatus, and the ear drum, which is the lateral portion of the tympanic membrane (Pickles 2012; Munir and Clarke 2013).

The pinna’s main function is to collect sound to direct it to the area of the cochlea where the sound is further analyzed and processed. The pinna has many important functions, such as helping with the localization of sound in the environment (Seikel et al. 2010).

The Ear Canal

The sound arrives there through the...


Sound Collector Cerumen Tympanic Membrane Antifungal Function External Auditory Meatus 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus