Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Employer Versus Employee

  • Gareth CrazeEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_3451-1



The interface between people in relative positions of hierarchy and influence within the context of an employment relationship.

The construct of leadership likely has a long evolutionary lineage. It may have arisen, in part, as a psychological and structural solution to the challenges inherent in complex group coordination: conflict resolution, coalition formation, collective nomadism, and so forth. It could be argued that an individual’s fitness would have been improved as a result of living in groups with effective leaders (Bastardoz and Van Vugt 2018). If one were to imagine two largely identical groups of ancestral humans – both inhabiting the same physical environment and beholden to the same climatic and environmental parameters – with one governed by effective leadership and thus optimized decision-making and reduced group discord and the other not, then, all else equal, those...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kevin Kniffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA