Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

State-Sanctioned Punishment as Substitute for Tribal Vengeance

  • Quésia F. Cataldo
  • Damião S. de Almeida Segundo
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2835-1

Synonyms

Definition

State punishment is an administrative system of punishments that mediate conflicts between aggressors and victims and replaced the previous sanction of tribal revenge.

Introduction

Revenge is considered a taboo in modern societies, but blood revenge is one of the most commonly cited causes of violence and warfare in tribal societies (Chagnon 1988). Evolutionary psychology considers that revenge could be transmitted by primary mechanisms and by cultural transmission, assuming that revenge is a built-in feature of human nature (McCullough 2008).

The definition of revenge is similar to biologists’ definition of punishment. Clutton-Brock and Parker (1995) define punishment as a costly imposition of costs that results in delayed benefits for the punisher. McCullough et al. (2013) claimed that revenge is defined when the imposition of costs at a cost is only is a response to an imposition of harm or a benefit-withholding that was caused...

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References

  1. Blick, J. P. (1988). Genocidal warfare in tribal societies as a result of European-induced culture conflict. Man, 23, 654–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boonin, D. (2008). The problem of punishment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chagnon, N. A. (1988). Life histories, blood revenge, and warfare in a tribal population. Science, 239(4843), 985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Parker, G. A. (1995). Punishment in animal societies. Nature, 373(6511), 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. McCullough, M. (2008). Beyond revenge: The evolution of the forgiveness instinct. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R., & Tabak, B. A. (2013). Putting revenge and forgiveness in an evolutionary context. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(1), 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quésia F. Cataldo
    • 1
  • Damião S. de Almeida Segundo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Guilherme S. Lopes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA