The human gut microbiome is a community of roughly 40 trillion bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protozoa which reside within the human gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut microbiome composition have been implicated in a variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral traits.
A variety of environments, including many human organs, contain within them communities of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, archaea, protozoa and viruses. This community is collectively referred to as the microbiome or microbiota. Traditionally, the term microbiota was used to refer to the community of organisms, and microbiome to refer to the collective genomes of organisms within those communities. While the term microbiome can still refer to a set of collective genetic material, these two terms are also now used synonymously to refer to the community of organisms within a given environment (Ursell et al. 2012). The human gastrointestinal tract...
- Carabotti, M., Scirocco, A., Maselli, M. A., & Severi, C. (2015). The gut-brain axis: Interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, 28(2), 203.Google Scholar
- de Theije, C. G., Wopereis, H., Ramadan, M., van Eijndthoven, T., Lambert, J., Knol, J., Garssen, J., Kraneveld, A. D., & Oozeer, R. (2014). Altered gut microbiota and activity in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 37, 197–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.12.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diaz Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Björkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M. L., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011). Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 3047–3052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dominguez-Bello, M. G., Costello, E. K., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Fierer, N., & Knight, R. (2010). Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), 11971–11975. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002601107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hooks, K. B., Konsman, J. P., & O’Malley, M. A. (2019). Microbiota-gut-brain research: A critical analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18002133.
- Lynch, K. E., Parke, E. C., & O’Malley, M. A. (2019). How causal are microbiomes? A comparison with the Helicobacter pylori explanation of ulcers. Biology and Philosophy, pitt philsci, 15777.Google Scholar
- Rosenberg, E. (2013). On the terms holobiont and hologenome. Microbemagazine.org. http://www.microbemagazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6298:on-the-terms-holobiontand-hologenome&catid=1194&Itemid=1453
- Sudo, N., Chida, Y., Aiba, Y., Sonoda, J., Oyama, N., Yu, X.-N., Kubo, C., & Koga, Y. (2004). Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. Journal of Physiology, 558(1), 263–275. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.063388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar