Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Edward Hagen

  • Kristen Syme
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_201-1


Edward Hagen is a biological anthropologist who specializes in the evolution of depression, self-harm, psychoactive drug use, among other topics.


Edward Hagen is a Professor of Anthropology at Washington State University where he has taught since 2007. He received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from UC Santa Barbara in 1999 under the supervision of John Tooby and took a postdoc in Peter Hammerstein’s group at the Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, from 2001 to 2007. Hagen has published on numerous topics in evolutionary psychological theory, but his work predominately centers on evolutionary approaches to noninfectious disease, particularly mental health. He is best known for his evolutionary theoretical research on depression and psychoactive drug use. His publications defending the field of evolutionary psychology against its critics are also widely cited.

The Bargaining Model of Depression, Self-Harm, and Suicidal Behavior

Most major...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Hagen, E. H. (1999). The functions of postpartum depression. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 325–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hagen, E. H. (2002). Depression as bargaining: The case postpartum. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 323–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hagen, E. H. (2003). The bargaining model of depression. In P. Hammerstein (Ed.), Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation (pp. 95–123). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Hagen, E. H. (2005). Controversies surrounding evolutionary psychology. In D. Buss (Ed.), The evolutionary psychology handbook (pp. 145–173). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Hagen, E. H. (2014). Invariant world, invariant mind. Evolutionary psychology and its critics. In D. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Hagen, E. H., & Bryant, G. A. (2003). Music and dance as a coalition signaling system. Human Nature, 14, 21–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hagen, E. H., & Hammerstein, P. (2006). Game theory and human evolution: A critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games. Theoretical Population Biology, 69, 339–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hagen, E. H., & Hammerstein, P. (2009). Did Neanderthals and other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of music in the loud calls of primates, lions, hyenas, and wolves. Musicae Scientiae, 13(2_suppl), 291–320.Google Scholar
  9. Hagen, E. H., & Rosenström, T. (2016). Explaining the sex difference in depression with a unified bargaining model of anger and depression. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2016(1), 117–132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hagen, E. H., Hames, R., Craig, N., Lauer, M., & Price, M. E. (2001). Parental investment and offspring health in a Yanomamö village. Journal of Biosocial Science, 33, 503–528.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hagen, E. H., Barrett, H. C., & Price, M. E. (2006). Do human parents face a quantity-quality tradeoff?: Evidence from a Shuar community. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 405–418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hagen, E. H., Watson, P., & Hammerstein, P. (2008). Gestures of despair and hope: A view on deliberate self-harm from economics and evolutionary biology. Biological Theory, 3, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hagen, E. H., Sullivan, R. J., Schmidt, R., Morris, G., Kempter, R., & Hammerstein, P. (2009). Ecology and neurobiology of toxin avoidance and the paradox of drug reward. Neuroscience, 160(1), 69–84.Google Scholar
  14. Hagen, E. H., Roulette, C. J., & Sullivan, R. J. (2013). Explaining human recreational use of ‘pesticides’: the neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 142.Google Scholar
  15. Hagen, E. H., Garfield, M. J., & Sullivan, R. J. (2016). The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: Gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection? Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2016(1), 195–211.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hess, N. H., & Hagen, E. H. (2006). Sex differences in informational aggression: Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hess, N., Helfrecht, C., Hagen, E., Sell, A., & Hewlett, B. (2010). Interpersonal aggression among Aka hunter-gatherers of the Central African Republic. Human Nature, 21(3), 330-354.Google Scholar
  18. Placek, C. D., & Hagen, E. H. (2013). A test of three hypotheses of pica and amylophagy among pregnant women in Tamil Nadu, India. American Journal of Human Biology, 25(6), 803–813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Placek, C. D., & Hagen, E. H. (2015). Fetal protection. Human Nature, 26(3), 255–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Placek, C. D., Madhivanan, P., & Hagen, E. H. (2017). Innate food aversions and culturally transmitted food taboos in pregnant women in rural southwest India: Separate systems to protect the fetus? Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(6), 714–728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Roulette, C. J., Mann, H., Kemp, B. M., Remiker, M., Roulette, J. W., Hewlett, B. S., … & Hagen, E. H. (2014). Tobacco use vs. helminths in Congo basin hunter-gatherers: self-medication in humans?. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35(5), 397–407.Google Scholar
  22. Roulette, C. J., Hagen, E., & Hewlett, B. S. (2016a). A biocultural investigation of gender differences in tobacco use in an egalitarian hunter-gatherer population. Human Nature, 27(2), 105–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Roulette, C. J., Kazanji, M., Breurec, S., & Hagen, E. H. (2016b). High prevalence of cannabis use among Aka foragers of the Congo Basin and its possible relationship to helminthiasis. American Journal of Human Biology, 28(1), 5–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sullivan RJ, Hagen EH and Hammerstein P 2008. Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 275, 1231–1241.Google Scholar
  25. Syme, K. L., Garfield, Z. H., & Hagen, E. H. (2016). Testing the bargaining vs. inclusive fitness models of suicidal behavior against the ethnographic record. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristen Syme
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington State UniversityVancouverUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tara DeLecce
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA