Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford


  • Sarvodaya TripathyEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1320-1



Viruses are smallest infectious agents comprising genetic material (DNA/RNA, never both) surrounded by a protein coat (Brooks 2010).


Viruses are submicroscopic infectious agents which are obligate intracellular parasites. They are metabolically active and can replicate, only inside the host cell (White et al. 1994). The extracellular (transmission) phase alternates with the intracellular (reproductive) phase. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was the first virus to be discovered (Lecoq 2001). Ivanoski (1892) saw that extracts from infected leaves remained infectious after filtration through bacterial filters. Beijerinck (1898) suggested to categorize the causative agent for tobacco mosaic disease as “virus” (Lecoq 2001).


Virion is the infectious virus particle consisting of a nucleocapsid core. Virions may be surrounded by a lipoprotein envelop (Brooks 2010) . The nucleic acid can be single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA....

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, M.K.C.G. Medical College, BrahmapurGanjamIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Farid Pazhoohi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada