Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Conditioned Response

  • Christoforos Christoforou
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1042-1

Synonyms

Definition

A conditioned response constitutes the product of learning through the acquisition of a new association between a previously neutral stimulus and a biologically relevant stimulus.

Introduction

Reflexive responses appear when an organism comes across stimuli which automatically trigger a reflexive response. For instance, a puff of air to the eye area automatically induces a reflexive response of an eyeblink (Spence 1978). In a scenario in which an originally neutral stimulus is associated with the puff of air, that formerly neutral stimulus turns into a conditioned stimulus and acquires functions that enable it to induce qualitatively similar responses (i.e., conditioned responses) with the reflexive ones (McSweeney and Murphy 2014). That is, in the field of Pavlovian/respondent conditioning, neutral stimuli refer to any stimulus that originally did not induce any particular...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Baum, W. M. (2017). Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, culture, and evolution. Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. McSweeney, F. K., & Murphy, E. S. (2014). The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of operant and classical conditioning. Malden: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ramnero, J., & Torneke, N. (2011). The ABCs of human behavior: Behavioral principles for the practicing clinician. Reno: Context Press.Google Scholar
  4. Schachtman, T. R. (2011). Associative learning and conditioning theory: Human and non-human applications. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Shanks, D. R. (1995). The psychology of associative learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Spence, K. W. (1978). Behavior theory and conditioning. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  7. Staddon, J. E. (2014). The new behaviorism: Mind, mechanism, and society. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  8. Thines, G. (1987). From Darwin to behaviourism. Behavioural Processes, 15(2–3), 345. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-6357(87)90018-0.Google Scholar
  9. Wills, A. J. (2012). New directions in human associative learning. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoforos Christoforou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus