Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

Living Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Saeideh Parvizi
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Hossein Talebmorad
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12127-7_295-1



Water (H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds) is a polar inorganic compound that is, at room temperature, a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. It covers more than 70% of the earth’s surface. It is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions (Reece 2013).


The word “water” comes from Old English “wæter,” from Proto-Germanic watar (source also of Old Saxon watar, Old Frisian wetir, Dutch water, Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, Old Norse vatn, Gothic wato “water”), from PIE wod-or, suffixed form of root wed-… “water; wet.” Water is essential for life. With two thirds of the earth’s surface covered by water and the human body consisting of 75% of it, it is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on earth. However, Contrary to the past, our...

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 1
  • Saeideh Parvizi
    • 1
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hossein Talebmorad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Water EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran