Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games

Living Edition
| Editors: Newton Lee

Presence and Immersion in Virtual Reality

  • Mehmet Ilker BerkmanEmail author
  • Ecehan Akan
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_162-1



Immersion is user’s engagement with a VR (virtual reality) system that results with being in a flow state. Immersion to VR systems mainly depends on sensory immersion, which is defined as “the degree which the range of sensory channel is engaged by the virtual simulation” (Kim and Biocca 2018).

Presence within the context of virtual reality is defined as one’s sense of being in the virtual world. The illusion is perceptual but not cognitive, as the perceptual system identifies the events and objects and the brain-body system automatically reacts to the changes in the environment, while cognitive system slowly responds with a conclusion of what the person experiences is an illusion (Slater 2018).

Even the VR professionals may mistakenly use the terms “presence” and “immersion” interchangeably; immersion stands for the objective level of sensory fidelity provided by a VR system (Slater 2003), whereas presence is the subjective...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication DesignBahçeşehir University Faculty of CommunicationIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Digital Game DesignBahçeşehir University Faculty of CommunicationIstanbulTurkey