Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games

Living Edition
| Editors: Newton Lee

Presence and Immersion in Virtual Reality

  • Mehmet Ilker Berkman
  • Ecehan Akan
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_162-1

Synonyms

Definitions

Immersion is user’s engagement with a VR (virtual reality) system that results with being in a flow state. Immersion to VR systems mainly depends on sensory immersion, which is defined as “the degree which the range of sensory channel is engaged by the virtual simulation” (Kim and Biocca 2018).

Presence within the context of virtual reality is defined as one’s sense of being in the virtual world. The illusion is perceptual but not cognitive, as the perceptual system identifies the events and objects and the brain-body system automatically reacts to the changes in the environment, while cognitive system slowly responds with a conclusion of what the person experiences is an illusion (Slater 2018).

Even the VR professionals may mistakenly use the terms “presence” and “immersion” interchangeably; immersion stands for the objective level of sensory fidelity provided by a VR system (Slater 2003), whereas presence is the subjective...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Antley, A., Slater, M.: The effect on lower spine muscle activation of walking on a narrow beam in virtual reality. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 17, 255–259 (2011)Google Scholar
  2. Baños, R.M., Botella, C., Alcañiz, M., Liaño, V., Guerrero, B., Rey, B.: Immersion and emotion: their impact on the sense of presence. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 7(6), 734–741 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. Barfield, W.: Musings on presence twenty-five years after “being there”. Presence Teleop. Virt. 25(2), (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1162/PRES_a_00252Google Scholar
  4. Baus, O., Bouchard, S.: Exposure to an unpleasant odour increases the sense of Presence in virtual reality. Virtual Reality. 21(2), 59–74 (2017)Google Scholar
  5. Biocca, F.: Can we resolve the book, the physical reality, and the dream state problems? From the two-pole to a three-pole model of shifts in presence. In: EU future and emerging technologies, presence initiative meeting (2003)Google Scholar
  6. Biocca, F., Delaney, B.: Immersive virtual reality technology. In: Biocca, F., Levy, M.R. (eds.) Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, pp. 57–126. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (1995)Google Scholar
  7. Biocca, F., Kim, J., Choi, Y.: Visual touch in virtual environments: an exploratory study of presence, multimodal interfaces, and cross-modal sensory illusions. Presence Teleop. Virt. 10(3), 247–265 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. Biocca, F., Harms, C., Burgoon, J.K.: Toward a more robust theory and measure of social presence: review and suggested criteria. Presence Teleop. Virt. 12(5), 456–480 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. Brooks, K.: There is nothing virtual about immersion: narrative immersion for VR and other interfaces. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~brooks/storybiz/immersiveNotVirtual.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2018 (2003)
  10. Brown, E., Cairns, P.: A grounded investigation of game immersion. In: CHI’04 Extended Abstracts on Human factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1297–1300. ACM, Vienna (2004)Google Scholar
  11. Clemente, M., Rodríguez, A., Rey, B., Alcañiz, M.: Assessment of the influence of navigation control and screen size on the sense of presence in virtual reality using EEG. Expert Syst. Appl. 41(4), 1584–1592 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, N., Milella, F., Pinto, C., Cant, I., White, M., Meyer, G.: The effects of substitute multisensory feedback on task performance and the sense of presence in a virtual reality environment. PLoS One. 13(2), e0191846 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. Diemer, J., Alpers, G.W., Peperkorn, H.M., Shiban, Y., Mühlberger, A.: The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality. Front. Psychol. 6, (2015).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00026
  14. Egan, D., Brennan, S., Barrett, J., Qiao, Y., Timmerer, C., Murray, N.: An evaluation of Heart Rate and ElectroDermal Activity as an objective QoE evaluation method for immersive virtual reality environments. In: Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), 2016 eighth International Conference on, pp. 1–6. IEEE, Lisbon (2016)Google Scholar
  15. Ermi, L., Mäyrä, F.: Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: analysing immersion. Worlds in Play: International Perspectives on Digital Games Research, 37(2), pp. 37–53. Peter Lang Publishers, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  16. Floridi, L.: The philosophy of presence: from epistemic failure to successful observability. Presence Teleop. Virt. 14(6), 656–667 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. Freeman, J., Avons, S.E.: Focus group exploration of presence through advanced broadcast services. In: Proceedings of the SPIE, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging V, 3959–76, presented at Photonics West – Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, San Jose, 23–28 January (2000)Google Scholar
  18. Gaggioli, A., Bassi, M., Fave, A.D.: Quality of experience in virtual environments. Emerg. Commun. 5, 121–136 (2003a)Google Scholar
  19. Gaggioli, A., Bassi, M., Fave, D.: In: Riva, G., Davide, F., IJsseelsteijn, W.A. (eds.) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurement of User Presence in Synthetic Environments. Ios Press, Amsterdam (2003b)Google Scholar
  20. Galloso, I., Palacios, J.F., Feijóo, C., Santamaría, A.: On the influence of individual characteristics and personality traits on the user experience with multi-sensorial media: an experimental insight. Multimed. Tools Appl. 75(20), 12365–12408 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. Guerraz, M., Bronstein, A.M.: Mechanisms underlying visually induced body sway. Neurosci. Lett. 443(1), 12–16 (2008)Google Scholar
  22. Harms, C., Biocca, F.: Internal consistency and reliability of the networked minds measure of social presence. In: 7th Annual International Workshop on Presence (2004)Google Scholar
  23. Hartmann, T., Wirth, W., Schramm, H., Klimmt, C., Vorderer, P., Gysbers, A., Böcking, S., Ravaja, N., Laarni, J., Saari, T., Gouveia, F., Sacau, A.M.: The spatial presence experience scale (SPES). J. Media Psychol. 28, 1–15 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105/a000137Google Scholar
  24. Heeter, C.: Being there: the subjective experience of presence. Presence Teleop. Virt. 1(2), 262–271 (1992)Google Scholar
  25. Hendrix, C., Barfield, W.: Presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. Presence Teleop. Virt. 5, 274–289 (1996)Google Scholar
  26. Insko, B.E.: Measuring presence: subjective, behavioral and physiological methods. In: Riva, G., Davide, F., Ijsseelsteijn, W.A. (eds.) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurement of User Presence in Synthetic Environments. Ios Press, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  27. International Society for Presence Research.: The concept of presence: explication statement. Retrieved 12 Feb 2018 from https://ispr.info/ (2000)
  28. Jacobson, D.: On theorizing presence. J. Virt. Environ. 6, 1 (2002)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. Jordan, J., Slater, M.: An analysis of eye scanpath entropy in a progressively forming virtual environment. Presence Teleop. Virt. 18(3), 185–199 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. Kim, T., Biocca, F.: Telepresence via television: two dimensions of telepresence may have different connections to memory and persuasion. J. Comput.-Mediat. Commun. 3, (1997).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00073.xGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, G., Biocca, F.: Immersion in virtual reality can increase exercise motivation and physical performance. In: International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, pp. 94–102. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
  32. Kivikangas, J.M., Chanel, G., Cowley, B., Ekman, I., Salminen, M., Järvelä, S., Ravaja, N.: A review of the use of psychophysiological methods in game research. J. Gaming Virt. Worlds. 3, 181–199 (2011)Google Scholar
  33. Kuschel, M., Freyberger, F., Buss, M., Färber, B.: A presence measure for virtual reality and telepresence based on multimodal conflicts. In: Proceedings of PRESENCE 2007: The 10th Annual International Workshop on Presence, Barcelona, 25–27 October (2007)Google Scholar
  34. Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Saari, T., Böcking, S., Hartmann, T., Schramm, H.: Ways to measure spatial presence: review and future directions. In: Immersed in Media, pp. 139–185. Springer, Cham (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_8Google Scholar
  35. Lampton, D.R., Knerr, B.W., Goldberg, S.L., Bliss, J.P., Moshell, J.M., Blau, B.S.: The virtual environment performance assessment battery (VEPAB): development and evaluation. Presence Teleop. Virt. 3, 145–157 (1994)Google Scholar
  36. Lee, K.M.: Presence, explicated. Commun. Theory. 14(1), (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1093/ct/14.1.27MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  37. Lepecq, J.C., Bringoux, L., Pergandi, J.M., Coyle, T., Mestre, D.: Afforded actions as a behavioural assessment of physical presence in virtual environments. Virtual Reality. 13, 141–151 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., Davidoff, J.: A cross-media presence questionnaire: the ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence Teleop. Virt. 10(3), 282–297 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. Ling, Y., Nefs, H.T., Brinkman, W.P., Qu, C., Heynderickx, I.: The relationship between individual characteristics and experienced presence. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29(4), 1519–1530 (2013)Google Scholar
  40. Lombard, M., Ditton, T.B.: At the heart of it all: the concept of presence. J. Comput.-Mediat. Commun. 3(2), 1–23 (1997)Google Scholar
  41. Lombard, M., Jones, M.T.: Defining presence. In: Immersed in Media, pp. 13–34. Springer (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_2Google Scholar
  42. Lombard, M., Ditton, T.B., Weinstein, L.: Measuring presence: the temple presence inventory. In: Proceedings of PRESENCE 2009: The 12th Annual International Workshop on Presence. International Society for Presence Research, Cleveland State University, Los Angeles (2009)Google Scholar
  43. McGreevy, M.W.: An Ethnographic Object-Oriented Analysis of Explorer Presence in a Volcanic Terrain Environment: Claims and evidence. NASA Technical Memorandum, vol 108823. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field (1994)Google Scholar
  44. Meehan, M., Razzaque, S., Insko, B., Whitton, M., Brooks Jr., F.P.: A review of four studies on the use of physiological reaction as a measure of presence in stressful virtual environments. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback. 30, 239–258 (2005)Google Scholar
  45. Minsky, M.: Telepresence, Omni. http://web.media.mit.edu/%7Eminsky/papers/Telepresence.html (1980) Retrieved 19 May 2018
  46. Nash, E.B., Edwards, G.W., Thompson, J.A., Barfield, W.: A review of presence and performance in virtual environments. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 12(1), 1–41 (2000)Google Scholar
  47. Poupyrev, I., Weghorst, S., Billinghurst, M., Ichikawa, T.: A framework and testbed for studying manipulation techniques for immersive VR. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual reality Software and Technology, pp. 21–28. ACM, Lausanne (1997)Google Scholar
  48. Sallnäs, E.-L., Rassmus-Gröhn, K., Sjöström, C.: Supporting presence in collaborative environments by haptic force feedback. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 7(4), 461 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1145/365058.365086Google Scholar
  49. Sas, C., O’Hare, G.M.P.: Presence equation: an investigation into cognitive factors underlying presence. Presence Teleop. Virt. 12(5), (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1162/105474603322761315Google Scholar
  50. Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., Regenbrecht, H.: The experience of presence: factor analytic insights. Presence Teleop. Virt. 10(3), 266–281 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1162/105474601300343603Google Scholar
  51. Sheridan, T.B.: Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence Teleop. Virt. 1(1), (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1162/pres.1992.1.1.120Google Scholar
  52. Slater, M.: A note on presence terminology. Presence Conn. 3(3), 1–5 (2003)Google Scholar
  53. Slater, M.: Immersion and the illusion of presence in virtual reality. Br. J. Psychol. 109(3), 431 (2018)Google Scholar
  54. Slater, M., Steed, A.: A virtual presence counter. Presence Teleop. Virt. 9(5), 413–434 (2000)Google Scholar
  55. Slater, M., Wilbur, S.: A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments. Presence Teleop. Virt. 6(6), 603–616 (1997)Google Scholar
  56. Slater, M., Usoh, M., Chrysanthou, Y.: The influence of dynamic shadows on presence in immersive virtual environments. In: Göbel, M. (ed.) Virtual Environments ’95: Selected Papers of the Eurographics Workshops, pp. 8–21. Springer, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  57. Slater, M., Khanna, P., Mortensen, J., Yu, I.: Visual realism enhances realistic response in an immersive virtual environment. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 29, 76–84 (2009)Google Scholar
  58. Stanney, K., Salvendy, G.: Aftereffects and sense of presence in virtual environments: formulation of a research and development agenda. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 10(2), 135–187 (1998)Google Scholar
  59. Stanney, K.M., Kingdon, K.S., Graeber, D., Kennedy, R.S.: Human performance in immersive virtual environments: effects of exposure duration, user control, and scene complexity. Hum. Perform. 15, 339–366 (2002)Google Scholar
  60. Steed, A., McDonnell, J.: Experiences with repertory grid analysis for investigating effectiveness of virtual environments. In: The Online Proceedings of PRESENCE 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  61. Steuer, J.: Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J. Commun. 42(4), (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.xGoogle Scholar
  62. Thornson, C.A., Goldiez, B.F., Le, H.: Predicting presence: constructing the tendency toward presence inventory. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 67(1), 62–78 (2009)Google Scholar
  63. Turner, S., Turner, P., Carroll, F., O’Neill, S., Benyon, D., McCall, R. Smyth, M.: Re-creating the Botanics: towards a sense of place in virtual environments. Paper presented at the 3rd UK environmental psychology conference, Aberdeen, 23–25 June (2003)Google Scholar
  64. Vignais, N., Kulpa, R., Craig, C., Brault, S., Multon, F., Bideau, B.: Influence of the graphical levels of detail of a virtual thrower on the perception of the movement. Presence Teleop. Virt. 19(3), 243–252 (2010)Google Scholar
  65. Wallach, H.S., Safir, M.P., Almog, I.: Attachment and sense of presence in a virtual environment. Virtual Reality. 13(3), 205–217 (2009)Google Scholar
  66. Waterworth, J. A., Waterworth, E.: The core of presence: Presence as perceptual illusion. Presence connect, 3(3). Retrieved 13 June 2018 from www.academia.edu (2003)
  67. Weibel, D., Schmutz, J., Pahud, O., Wissmath, B.: Measuring spatial presence: introducing and validating the pictorial presence SAM. Presence Teleop. Virt. 24(1), 44–61 (2015)Google Scholar
  68. Wirth, W., Hartmann, T., Böcking, S., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., Schramm, H., Saari, T., Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Gouveia, F.B., Biocca, F., Sacau, A., Baumgartner, T., Jäncke, P.: A process model of the formation of spatial presence experiences. Media Psychol. 9, 493–525 (2007)Google Scholar
  69. Wissmath, B., Weibel, D., Schmutz, J., Mast, F.W.: Being present in more than one place at a time? Patterns of mental self-localization. Conscious. Cogn. 20(4), 1808–1815 (2011)Google Scholar
  70. Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence Teleop. Virt. 7(3), 225–240 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1162/105474698565686Google Scholar
  71. Youngblut, C., Huie, O.: The relationship between presence and performance in virtual environments: results of a VERTS study. In: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality, pp. 277–278 (2003)Google Scholar
  72. Zahorik, P., Jenison, R.L.: Presence as being-in-the-world. Presence Teleop. Virt. 7(1), 78–89 (1998)Google Scholar
  73. Zhao, S.: Reconceptualizing presence: differentiating between mode of presence and sense of presence. In: Proceedings of PRESENCE 2002, pp. 260–273 (2002)Google Scholar
  74. Zhao, S.Y.: Toward a taxonomy of copresence. Presence Teleop. Virt. 12(5), 445–455 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication DesignBahçeşehir University Faculty of CommunicationIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Digital Game DesignBahçeşehir University Faculty of CommunicationIstanbulTurkey