Encyclopedia of Lunar Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Brian Cudnik

Opposition Effect

  • Brian CudnikEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05546-6_188-1

Definition

The opposition effect (also known as opposition surge) is the brightening of a rough surface or an object made up of many particles when illuminated by a source located directly behind the observer.

Theory and Application: Physical Causes and Mechanisms

The opposition effect (Fig. 1) is often referred to by other names, e.g., the opposition surge, opposition spike, or Seeliger effect. It describes the phenomenon where an object or region noticeably brightens when that object or region reaches a phase angle of approximately zero. This effect has been known for over a century, being first observed in the reflected sunlight from Saturn’s rings at opposition (Seeliger 1895; Hapke et al. 1998). This phenomenon was first observed with the Moon by Gehrels et al. ( 1964) as the brightness of the lunar surface is almost 40% greater at the moment of Full Moon than 1 day before or after Full Moon (Hapke et al. 1998). The first laboratory experiments to observe the opposition effect in...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Akkermans e WP, Maynard R (1986) Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape. Phys Rev Lett 56:1471–1474ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buratti BJ, Hillier JK, Wang M (1996) The lunar opposition surge: observations by clementine. Icarus 124:490–499ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gehrels T, Coffeen D, Owings D (1964) Wavelength dependence of polarization, III, the lunar surface. Astron J 69:826–852ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hapke B (1986) Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. 4. The extinction coefficient and the opposition effect. Icarus 67:264–280ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hapke B (1989) Coherent backscatter: an explanation for the unusual radar properties of outer planet satellites. Bull Amer Astron Soc 21:984ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Hapke B (2002) Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy: 5. The coherent backscatter opposition effect and anisotropic scattering. Icarus 157:523–534ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hapke B, Nelson RM, Smythe W (1993) The opposition effect of the moon: the contribution of coherent backscatter. Science 260:509–511ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hapke B, Nelson R, Smythe W (1998) The opposition effect of the moon: coherent backscatter and shadow hiding. Icarus 133:89–97ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hapke B, Denevi B, Sato H et al (2012) The wavelength dependence of the lunar phase curve as seen by the lunar reconnaissance orbiter wide-angle camera. J Geophys Res 117:E00H15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaydash V, Pieters C, Shkuratov Y et al (2013) Lunar opposition effect as inferred from Chandrayaan-1 M3 data. J Geophys Res Planets 118:1221–1232ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lakdawalla E (2009) What ‘phase angle’ means. http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2009/2179.html
  12. Oetking P (1966) Photometric studies of diffusely reflecting surfaces with applications to the brightness of the moon. J Geophys Res 71:2505–2513ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pohn H, Radin H, Wildy R (1969) The Moon’s photometric function near zero phase angle from Apollo 8 photography. Astrophys J 157:193–195ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Seeliger H (1887) Zur Theorie der Beleuchtung der grossen Planeten insbesondere des Saturn. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Kl 16:405–516Google Scholar
  15. Seeliger H (1895) Theorie der Beleuchtung staubformiger kosmischen Masses insebesondere des Saturinges. Abh Bayer Acad Wiss Math-Naturwiss Kl 18:1–72Google Scholar
  16. Shkuratov Y, Kreslavsky M, Ovcharenki A, Shankevich D, Zubko E, Pieters C, Arnold G (1999) Opposition effect from Clementine data and mechanisms of backscatter. Icarus 141:132–155ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Albada N, Van der Mark M, Lagendijk A (1987) Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light-path classification. Phys Rev Lett 58:361–364ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Van Albada M, Van der Mark M, Lagendijk A (1990) Experiments on weak localization of light and their interpretation. In: Sheng F (ed) Scattering and localization of classical waves in random media. World Scientific, Teaneck, pp 97–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Velikodsky YI, Korokhin VV, Shkuratov YG et al (2016) Opposition effect of the moon from LROC WAC data. Icarus 275:1–15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Whitaker E (1969) An investigation of the lunar heiligenschein. In: Analysis of Apollo 8 photography and visual observations, compiled by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA spec. Publ. SP-201. U.S. Gov. Print. Off., Washington, DC, pp 38–40Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and PhysicsPrairie View A&M UniversityPrairie ViewUSA