Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Marco Sgarbi

Pharmacology in the Renaissance

  • Andreas Blank
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02848-4_1104-1

Abstract

In addition to practical handbooks, academic medicine in the sixteenth century offered various metaphysical accounts of the nature and causal powers of medicaments. One important strand of thought tried to reduce pharmacological powers to elementary qualities and their modifications in mixtures. In this context, the distinction between primary, secondary, and tertiary qualities was discussed. Another strand of thought ascribed so-called pharmacological powers “of the whole substance” to celestial influences. A third strand of thought discussed critically the prospects of applying emergentism – the view that from complex combinations of elementary qualities, new substantial forms with irreducible causal powers could arise – to the analysis of medicaments. While this third strand of thought faced serious ontological difficulties – such as the question of how something substantial could arise from something qualitative and the question of how unities could arise from multiplicities – some Renaissance pharmacologists adopted emergentism for particular groups of medicaments such as purgative drugs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alexander of Aphrodisias. 2008. De l’âme. Ed. and trans. M. Bergeron and R. Dufour. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander of Aphrodisias. 2012. On the soul. Part I: Soul as the form of body, parts of the soul, nourishment and perception. Trans. C. Victor. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  3. Arcangeli, Alessandro, and Vivian Nutton. 2008. Girolamo Mercuriale: medicina e cultura nell’Europa del Cinquecento. Florence: Olschki.Google Scholar
  4. Avicenna. 1608. De viribus cordis. Trans. A. V. Arnaldus. In Avicenna, [Canon.] Tomus secundus, 334–352. Venice: Giunta.Google Scholar
  5. Bono, James J. 1990. Reform and the languages of renaissance theoretical medicine: Harvey versus Fernel. Journal of the History of Biology 23: 341–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caston, Victor. 1997. Epiphenomenalisms, ancient and modern. Philosophical Review 106: 309–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clericuzio, Antonio. 1988. Spiritus vitalis: Studio sulle teorie fisiologiche da Fernel a Boyle. Nouvelles de la République des lettres 8: 33–84.Google Scholar
  8. Copenhaver, Brian. 1991. A tale of two fishes: Magical objects in natural history from antiquity through the scientific revolution. Journal of the History of Ideas 52: 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dessi, Cristina. 1995. Marsilio Ficino, Jean Fernel e lo spiritus. In Filosofia, scienza, storia, ed. Antonio Cadeddu, 203–219. FrancoAngeli: Milan.Google Scholar
  10. De Vos, Paula. 2013. The ‘prince of medicine’. Yuhanna ibn Masawayh and the foundations of the western pharmaceutical tradition. Isis 104: 667–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erastus, Thomas. 1574. De occultis pharmacorum potestatibus. Basel: Perna.Google Scholar
  12. Fernel, Jean. 1585. Universa medicina. Lyon: Giunta.Google Scholar
  13. Fernel, Jean. 2005. Jean Fernel’s on the hidden causes of things. Forms, souls and occult diseases in renaissance medicine. With an edition and translation of Fernel’s De abditis rerum causis by J. M. Forrester; introduction and annotations by J. Henry and J. M. Forrester. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  14. Gunnoe, Charles D. 2011. Thomas Erastus and the palatinate. A renaissance physician in the second reformation. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  15. Hirai, Hiro. 2005. Le concept de semence dans les théories de la matière à la Renaissance. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  16. Hirai, Hiro. 2011. Medical humanism and natural philosophy: Renaissance debates on matter, life and the soul. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kessler, Eckhard. 2011. Alexander of Aphrodisias and his doctrine of the soul. 1400 years of lasting significance. Early Science and Medicine 16: 1–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lodovici, Antonio. 1540. De occultis proprietatibus, Olyssipone [no publisher].Google Scholar
  19. Mattioli, Pietro Andrea. 1569. De simplicium medicamentorum facultatibus. Venice: Valgrisius.Google Scholar
  20. Mercuriale, Girolamo. 1590. Tractatus. De Compositione Medicamentorum. De Morbis Oculorum & Aurium. Venice: Giunta.Google Scholar
  21. Martin, Craig. 2002. Francisco Valles and the renaissance reinterpretation of Aristotle’s Meteorologica IV as a medical text. Early Science and Medicine 7: 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mesue, Johannes. 1552. Opera, a Ioannes Costa medico Laudensi nunc recognita, & aucta adnotationibus. Venice: Giunta.Google Scholar
  23. Newman, William R. 2006. Atoms and alchemy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palmer, Richard. 1985. Pharmacy in the Republic of Venice in the sixteenth century. In The medical renaissance in the sixteenth century, ed. A. Wear, R.K. French, and I.M. Lonie. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Puteanus, Guilielmus. 1552. De medicamentorum quomodocunque purgantium facultatibus. Lyon: Bonhomme.Google Scholar
  26. Schegk, Jacob. 1540. De causa continente. Eodem interprete Alexandri Aphrodisaei De mixtione libellus. Tübingen: Morhard.Google Scholar
  27. Schegk, Jacob. 1550. In reliquos naturalium Aristotelis libros commentaria plane philosophica. Basel: Hervag.Google Scholar
  28. Schegk, Jacob. 1580. De plastica seminis facultate. De calido & humido nativis. De primo sanguificationis instrumento. Augsburg: Iobinus.Google Scholar
  29. Schegk, Jacob. 1585. Tractationum physicarum et medicarum tomus unus. Frankfurt: Wechel.Google Scholar
  30. Siraisi, Nancy G. 2003. History, antiquarianism, and medicine: The case of Girolamo Mercuriale. Journal of the History of Ideas 64: 231–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ulmus, Johannes Franciscus. 1597. De occultis in re medica proprietatibus. Brixae: Praesenius.Google Scholar
  32. Valles, Francisco. 1582. Controversiarum medicarum et philosophicarum libri decem. Frankfurt: Wechel.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Blank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyAlpen-Adria Universität KlagenfurtKlagenfurtAustria

Section editors and affiliations

  • Hiro Hirai
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for the History of Philosophy and ScienceRadboud Universiteit NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands