2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Trophoblastic Tumors

  • Maurizio ColecchiaEmail author
  • Alessia Bertolotti
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4961



Chorionepitelioma; Trophoblastic malignant teratoma


Choriocarcinoma (CC) is an aggressive neoplasm that recapitulates the placental trophoblastic cells of the extraembryonic chorion, including cytotrophoblastic, intermediate trophoblastic, and syncytiotrophoblastic cells.

Clinical Features

Pure choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor with an incidence of 0.8/100000 in countries with a high incidence of GCTs (0.3% of testicular GCTs), and it occurs in 6.4–17.8% of mixed GCTs. CC often occurs with signs or symptoms attributed to a distant metastasis, such as haemoptysis, abdominal mass, neurological dysfunction, anemia; serum human chorion gonadotropin is frequently >50,000 IU/L. Gynecomastia and thyrotoxicosis are infrequently observed. Proclivity for high-stage presentation, including presence of distant metastasis to the lungs and liver, hematogenous spread, and poor outcome are reported. It is unclear whether testicular GCT with a predominant CC...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Alvarado-Cabrero, I., Hernández-Toriz, N., & Paner, G. P. (2014). Clinicopathologic analysis of choriocarcinoma as a pure or predominant component of germ cell tumor of the testis. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 38(1), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banet, N., Gown, A. M., Shih, I. M., Kay Li, Q., Roden, R. B., Nucci, M. R., Cheng, L., Przybycin, C. G., Nasseri-Nik, N., Wu, L. S., Netto, G. J., Ronnett, B. M., & Vang, R. (2015). GATA-3 expression in trophoblastic tissues: An immunohistochemical study of 445 cases, including diagnostic utility. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 39(1), 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gondim, D. D., Ulbright, T. M., Cheng, L., & Idrees, M. T. (2017). Primary cystic trophoblastic tumor of the testis: A study of 14 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 41(6), 788–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Idrees, M. T., Kao, C. S., Epstein, J. I., & Ulbright, T. M. (2015). Nonchoriocarcinomatous trophoblastic tumors of the testis: The widening spectrum of trophoblastic neoplasia. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 39(11), 1468–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ulbright, T. M., Henley, J. D., Cummings, O. W., Foster, R. S., & Cheng, L. (2004). Cystic trophoblastic tumor: A nonaggressive lesion in postchemotherapy resections of patients with testicular germ cell tumors. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 28(9), 1212–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uropathology Unit, Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di MilanoMilanItaly