2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Spermatic Cord Torsion and Testicular Infarction

  • Caterina Fattorini
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
  • Maria Rosaria RaspolliniEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4946


It is a twisting of the spermatic cord that causes an interruption of the blood flow to the testis.

Clinical Features

  • Age and incidence

    This is a common surgical emergency among children and adolescents, with one peak in the neonatal period and the second peak around puberty. It has an incidence of 3,8 per 100,000 males under 18 years with 65% of cases occurring between 12 and 18 years of age (Sharp et al. 2013).

  • Risk factors

    Testicular torsion may be associated with trauma and some congenital conditions (incomplete testicular descent, absent gubernaculum testis, testicular atrophy, and some others).

  • Presentation

    It usually presents with severe testicular pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

  • Treatment

    Spermatic cord torsion is a surgical emergency, and it requires an immediate surgical or manual intervention to restore blood flow.

  • Outcome

    To avoid irreversible ischemic damage and the subsequent loss of the involved testis, the torsion must be treated necessarily...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Kao, C.-S., Zhang, C., et al. (2014). Testicular hemorrhage, necrosis, and vasculopathy: Likely manifestations of intermittent torsion that clinically mimic a neoplasm. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 38(1), 34–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mikuz, G. (1985). Testicular torsion: Simple grading for histological evaluation of tissue damage. Applied Pathology, 3(3), 134–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Sharp, V. J., Kieran, K., & Arlen, A. M. (2013). Testicular torsion: Diagnosis, evaluation, and management. American Family Physician, 88(12), 835–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caterina Fattorini
    • 1
  • Antonio Lopez-Beltran
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maria Rosaria Raspollini
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Histopathology and Molecular DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Pathology ServiceChampalimaud Clinical CenterLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of SurgeryCordoba University Medical SchoolCordobaSpain