2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

  • Alessandro FranchiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4832


Inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation; Inflammatory pseudotumor; Plasma cell granuloma; Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic tumor


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a tumor composed of myofibroblasts accompanied by a mixed inflammatory infiltrate.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    IMT is a relatively rare tumor in the genitourinary system.

  • Age

    It may occur at all ages, including in children. The mean age at diagnosis is 50 years.

  • Sex

    It involves more frequently male subjects.

  • Site

    Genitourinary IMT arise more frequently in the bladder, but cases have been reported also in the kidneys, prostate, spermatic cord, and testis.

  • Treatment

    In the bladder, most cases are treated with transurethral resection. Some patients have undergone partial cystectomy.

  • Outcome

    IMT is a locally aggressive neoplasm, with tendency to local recurrence, and rare incidence of metastasis.


Grossly, IMT appears as a circumscribed solitary or multinodular mass with a white to...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Harik, L. R., Merino, C., Coindre, J. M., et al. (2006). Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations of the bladder: A clinicopathologic study of 42 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 30, 787–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jebastin, J. A. S., Smith, S. C., Perry, K. D., Gupta, N. S., Alanee, S., Carskadon, S., Chitale, D. A., Palanisamy, N., & Williamson, S. R. (2018). Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations of the genitourinary tract are genetically different from nodular fasciitis and lack USP6, ROS1 and ETV6 gene rearrangements. Histopathology, 73, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kapusta, L., Weiss, M., Ramsay, J., et al. (2003). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the kidney: A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 27, 658–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Montgomery, E. A., Shuster, D. D., Burkart, A. L., Esteban, J. M., Sgrignoli, A., Elwood, L., Vaughn, D. J., Griffin, C. A., & Epstein, J. I. (2006). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the urinary tract: A clinicopathologic study of 46 cases, including a malignant example inflammatory fibrosarcoma and a subset associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 30, 1502–1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tsuzuki, T., Magi-Galluzzi, C., & Epstein, J. I. (2004). ALK-1 expression in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 28, 1609–1614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly