2020 Edition
| Editors: Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Antonio Lopez-Beltran

Infectious Disease of the Testis

  • Manuel NistalEmail author
  • Pilar González-Peramato
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41894-6_4830

In more than 50% of cases, infections affect both the testis and the epididymis (orchioepididymitis). Infections can be divided into acute and chronic depending on the etiologic agent and the duration of infection. Germs reach testis and epididymis in several ways: hematogenous, retrograde if there is urine reflux seminal vesicle-epididymis, lymphatic, or direct from a trauma or wound. Germs that arrive by hematogenous route affect the testicle and produce orchitis. Infectious agents that reach through excretory ducts lead to epididymitis (Nistal et al. 2016).

Epididymitis and Acute Orchioepididymitis

Clinically, the epididymis or, where appropriate, the testicle are congestive, thickened, edematous with fibrinopurulent exudate. The most frequent etiology is bacterial, followed by viral and those caused by parasites.

Bacterias: In childhood, bacterial germs that cause epididymitis are preferably coliforms, in young adults, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatisand in elder...
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References and Further Reading

  1. Bosilkovski, M., Kamiloski, V., Miskova, S., Balalovski, D., Kotevska, V., & Petrovski, M. (2018). Testicular infection in brucellosis: Report of 34 cases. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, 51, 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Janssen, K. M., Willis, C. J., Anderson, M., Gelnett, M. S., Wickersham, E. L., & Brand, T. C. (2017). Filariasis Orchitis-differential for acute scrotum pathology. Urology Case Reports, 13, 117–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Moazenchi, M., Totonchi, M., Salman Yazdi, R., Hratian, K., Mohseni Meybodi, M. A., Ahmadi Panah, M., Chehrazi, M., & Mohseni Meybodi, A. (2018). The impact of chlamydia trachomatis infection on sperm parameters and male fertility: A comprehensive study. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 29, 466–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nistal, M., Paniagua, R., González-Peramato, P., & Reyes-Múgica, M. (2016). Perspective in pediatric pathology, chapter 24. Testicular inflammatory processes in pediatric patients. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 19, 460–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ryan, L., Daly, P., Cullen, I., & Doyle, M. (2018). Epididymo-orchitis caused by enteric organisms in men > 35 years old: Beyond fluoroquinolones. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 37, 1001–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Yamashita, S., Umemoto, H., Kohjimoto, Y., & Hara, I. (2017). Xanthogranulomatous orchitis after blunt testicular trauma mimicking a testicular tumor: A case report and comparison with published cases. Urology Journal, 14, 3094–3096.PubMedGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Histology and Neuroscience, School of MedicineUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital La PazMadridSpain