Counseling to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, or intersex (LGBTQI) individuals may have a variety of foci. In addition to the exploration of predictable developmental and interpersonal concerns, counseling with LGBTQI clients often addresses additional stressors or conflicts experienced uniquely by sexual minorities and their families. These stresses may include coming out to family members, friends, or employers; health-related concerns such as conceiving or adopting children; assuring health benefits and legal rights for nonmarital partners; beginning or continuing a gender transition for transgender persons; responding to harassment or physical violence; conflicts with families of origin; workplace discrimination; and spiritual concerns. The stresses experienced by sexual minorities, including internalized homophobia and homonegativity, have been linked to often underdiagnosed symptoms of depression, suicidality, substance abuse, and...
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