Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

2020 Edition
| Editors: David A. Leeming

Psychological Types

  • Adele TylerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24348-7_539

A theory of personality developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung in the early years of the twentieth century. Jung theorized that people’s behaviors are directed by inborn tendencies to think and act in different but equally valid ways. His theory posits two basic orientations to the world, called attitudes, and four main mental processes, called functions. He considered these psychological preferences innate tendencies, like a preference for right- or left-handedness, and speculated they were biologically based.

Jung’s stated purpose in developing a theory of psychological types was not to sort people into boxlike categories but rather to expand the language of the then-new science of psychology to facilitate more methodical, empirical research on human behavior. He developed his ideas on psychological types in part from observations of his patients, both individuals and couples. In his book Psychological Types, first published in 1921, Jung acknowledged the historical roots of...

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Bibliography

  1. Jeffries, W. C. (1991). True to type. Charlottesville: Hampton Roads Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types, a revision by R.F.C. Hull (H. G. Baynes, Trans.) (Bollingen Series XX). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Myers, I. B. (1998). Introduction to type. Mountain View: CPP.Google Scholar
  4. Myers, I. B., & Myers, P. B. (1980). Gifts differing. Palo Alto: Davis-Black Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Spoto, A. (1995). Jung’s typology in perspective. Wilmette: Chiron Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Von Franz, M.-L., & Hillman, J. (1971). Lectures on Jung’s typology. Dallas: Spring Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Life JourneysNashvilleUSA