Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

2020 Edition
| Editors: David A. Leeming

Protestantism

  • Jaco HammanEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24348-7_531
  • 2 Downloads

Protestantism is a general term describing the third main form of Christianity alongside Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity. It originated in the sixteenth century when in 1529 German princes presented a Protestatio or letter of protest against the Catholic Church’s prohibition on innovation in the field of religion. This act by the “Protestants” – later also called “Evangelicals” – initiated a movement called the Christian Reformation asking “Who is the true and holy church?”

Despite holding worldviews ranging from open and liberal to nationalist conservative and even fundamentalist, Protestantism is most often characterized by the following: proclaiming that all glory belongs to God (soli Deo Gloria); salvation is by grace alone (sola gratia); the centrality of the spoken and written Word (sola Scriptura); freedom and independence; truth and the church are ever evolving; baptism and communion as the only sacraments; and placing a person’s relationship with God above...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Browning, D. S. (1987). Religious thought and the modern psychologies: A critical conversation in the theology of culture. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  2. Carroll, A. J. (2007). Protestant modernity: Weber, secularization, and Protestantism. Scranton: University of Scranton Press.Google Scholar
  3. Eppehimer, T. (2007). Protestantism. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.Google Scholar
  4. Griffith, R. M. (2004). Born again bodies: Flesh and spirit in American Christianity. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guntrip, H. (1957). Psychotherapy and religion. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  6. Harrison, P. (1998). The Bible, Protestantism, and the rise of natural science. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Holifield, E. B. (1987). A history of pastoral care in America: From salvation to self-realization. Nashville: Abingdon.Google Scholar
  8. Hunsinger, D. V. D. (1995). Theology and pastoral counseling: A new interdisciplinary approach. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  9. Jones, J. W. (1991). Contemporary psychoanalysis and religion: Transference and transcendence. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Jonte-Pace, D., & Parsons, W. B. (2001). Religion and psychology: Mapping the terrain. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Malony, H. N. (1995). The psychology of religion for ministry. New York: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  12. McGrath, A. E. (2007). Christianity’s dangerous idea: The Protestant revolution – A history from the sixteenth century to the twenty-first (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne.Google Scholar
  13. McMinn, M. R., & Campbell, C. D. (2007). Integrative psychotherapy: Toward a comprehensive Christian approach. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Oates, W. E. (1962). Protestant pastoral counseling. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.Google Scholar
  15. Oates, W. E. (1973). The psychology of religion. Waco: Word Books.Google Scholar
  16. Pearce, J. C. (2007). The death of religion and the rebirth of spirit: A return to the intelligence of the heart. Rochester: Park Street Press.Google Scholar
  17. Pruyser, P. W. (1968). A dynamic psychology of religion. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  18. Pruyser, P. W. (1991). Religion in psychodynamic perspective: The contributions of Paul W. Pruyser. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Shults, F. L., & Sandage, S. J. (2006). Transforming spirituality: Integrating theology and psychology. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.Google Scholar
  20. Watts, F. (2002). Theology and psychology. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Divinity SchoolVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA