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Dopamine (dopaminergic) system plays an important role in central neural system, taking part in regulating motor control, executive functions, motivation, reinforcement, reward, sleep, feeding, attention, cognitive functions, olfaction, vision, hormonal regulation, and outside of central neural system in sympathetic regulation and penile erection. Dopamine as well influences immune, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems and renal function.
Dopaminergic neurons are a heterogenic group of cells, most of which are localized in mesencephalon and diencephalon, and a small amount is located in bulbus olfactorius. In mesencephalon cells are localized in three groups – in substantia nigra pars compacta (SN), in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and in the retrorubral field (RRF). The axons of...