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Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in Natural Oil Seeps

  • Andreas TeskeEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)

Abstract

Hydrocarbons in natural oil seeps provide carbon and energy sources for extensive and diverse microbial communities. This chapter provides an introduction to sulfate-reducing, methanogenic, and methane- or alkane-oxidizing anaerobic microbial populations from hydrocarbon-rich marine habitats. Persistent enrichment and cultivation efforts and pure culture studies have greatly increased the recognized diversity of cultured, hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and the knowledge of their substrate spectra, habitat preferences, and ecophysiological function in their natural environments. This chapter highlights model ecosystems where diverse hydrocarbon-oxidizing microbial communities are sustained by fossil hydrocarbons; characteristic examples are the hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, where deeply sourced hydrocarbons of Jurassic origin are rising through extensive sediment layers that are fractured by salt tectonics, and the hydrothermal Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California, where buried organic matter of photosynthetic origin, which is undergoing thermal maturation, is transformed into young petroleum within the upper sediment layers. These examples provide surface expressions of subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs and their microbiota. The microbial communities in hydrocarbon seeps and reservoirs reflect the spectrum of carbon substrates and electron donors and the wide range of physical conditions that characterize these habitats.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Andreas Teske was supported by NSF (Biological Oceanography 0647633 and 1357238 for Guaymas Basin; Emerging Frontiers/Microbial Observatories: Microbial Interactions and Processes 0801741 for the Gulf of Mexico) and by the Gulf of Mexico Research Institute [GOMRI] through the ECOGIG [Ecological Consequences of Oil and Gas input into the Gulf of Mexico] consortium.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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