The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Oliver Richmond (Editor-in-Chief), Gëzim Visoka (Editor-in-Chief)

Peace Formation in Bougainville

Living reference work entry


Peace formation on the Pacific island of Bougainville after a protracted internal violent conflict has been a remarkable success story. In this entry it will be argued that this success is due to constructive interactions between international and national formal institutions and actors on the one hand and local informal institutions and actors from the sphere of civil society and customary governance on the other. While the first pursue a conventional liberal agenda of peacebuilding, the latter introduce their indigenous ways of conflict transformation, peace formation, and forming political community into the process. Externally driven peacebuilding is thus only one aspect of much broader and deeper peace formation. In the course of local-liberal interaction, hybrid forms of peace emerge that differ considerably from Western concepts of peace but at the same time can become more efficient and legitimate in maintaining peace and order. After two decades of peace formation,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adams, R. (Ed.). (2001). Peace on Bougainville – Truce monitoring group. Gudpela Nius Bilong peace. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Government – Australian Civil-Military Centre. (2012). Partnering for peace. Australia’s peacekeeping and peacebuilding experiences in the autonomous region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea, and in Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste. Canberra: Australian Government.Google Scholar
  3. Boege, V. (2012). Hybrid forms of peace and order on a South Sea Island: Experiences from Bougainville (Papua New Guinea). In O. Richmond & A. Mitchell (Eds.), Hybrid forms of peace: From everyday agency to post-liberalism (pp. 88–106). Houndmills/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boege, V. (2019). The rambutan, the chopper and the broken spear: Peacebuilding on Bougainville as a cross-cultural exchange. Peacebuilding, 7(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boege, V., & Garasu, L. (2011). Bougainville: A source of inspiration for conflict resolution. In M. Brigg & R. Bleiker (Eds.), Mediating across difference. Oceanic and Asian approaches to conflict resolution (pp. 163–182). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boege, V., Brown, A., Clements, K., & Nolan, A. (2009). On hybrid political orders and emerging states: What is failing – States in the global South or research and politics in the West? Berghof handbook dialogue series no. 8 (pp. 15–35). Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.Google Scholar
  7. Bougainville Peace Agreement. (2001). In: A. Carl & L. Garasu (Eds.), Weaving consensus – The Papua New Guinea – Bougainville peace process (Conciliation Resources Accord Issue 12/2002) (pp. 67–85). London: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
  8. Braithwaite, J. (2011). Partial truth and reconciliation in the long duree. Contemporary Social Science, 6(1), 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braithwaite, J., et al. (2010). Reconciliation and architectures of commitment. Sequencing peace in Bougainville. Canberra: ANU ePress.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Breen, B. (2016). The good neighbour: Australian peace support operations in the Pacific Islands, 1980–2006. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brigg, M. (2014). Culture, ‘relationality’, and global cooperation. Global cooperation research papers 6. Duisburg: Centre for Global Cooperation Research.Google Scholar
  12. Brigg, M. (2016). Relational peacebuilding. Promise beyond crisis. In T. Debiel, T. Held, & U. Schneckener (Eds.), Peacebuilding in crisis. Rethinking paradigms and practices of transnational cooperation (pp. 56–690). London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carl, A., & Garasu, L. (Eds.). (2002). Weaving consensus. The Papua New Guinea – Bougainville peace process (Accord issue 12). London: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
  14. Havini, M. T., & Tankunani Sirivi, J. (Eds.). (2004). … as mothers of the land. The birth of the Bougainville women for peace and freedom. Canberra: Pandanus Books.Google Scholar
  15. Howley, P. (2002). Breaking spears and mending hearts. Peacemakers and restorative justice in Bougainville. London/Annandale: Zed Books/The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  16. Keesing, R. M. (1993). Kastom re-examined. Anthropological Forum, 6(4), 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krogstad, E. G. (2014). Local ownership as dependence management: Inviting the Coloniser Back. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 8(2–3), 105–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mac Ginty, R. (2008). Indigenous peace-making versus the liberal peace. Cooperation and Conflict, 43(2), 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mac Ginty, R. (2011). International peacebuilding and local resistance. Hybrid forms of peace. Hampshire/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mac Ginty, R. (2015). Where is the local? Critical localism and peacebuilding. Third World Quarterly, 36(5), 840–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mac Ginty, R. (2016). What do we mean when we use the term ‘local’? Imagining and framing the local and the international in relation to peace and order. In T. Debiel, T. Held, & U. Schneckener (Eds.), Peacebuilding in crisis. Rethinking paradigms and practices of transnational cooperation (pp. 193–209). London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mac Ginty, R., & Richmond, O. P. (2013). The local turn in peace building: A critical agenda for peace. Third World Quarterly, 34(5), 763–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mac Ginty, R., & Richmond, O. P. (2015). The fallacy of constructing hybrid political orders: A reappraisal of the hybrid turn in peacebuilding. International Peacekeeping, 23(2), 219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McLeod, L. (2015). A feminist approach to hybridity: Understanding local and international interactions in producing post-conflict gender security. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 9(1), 48–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Regan, A. J. (2000). ‘Traditional’ leaders and conflict resolution in Bougainville: Reforming the present by re-writing the past? In S. Dinnen & A. Ley (Eds.), Reflections on violence in Melanesia (pp. 290–304). Annandale/Canberra: Hawkins Press & Asia Pacific Press.Google Scholar
  26. Regan, A. J. (2008). The Bougainville intervention: Political legitimacy and sustainable peace-building. In G. Fry & T. T. Kabutaulaka (Eds.), Intervention and state-building in the Pacific. The legitimacy of ‘cooperative intervention (pp. 184–208). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Regan, A. J. (2010). Light intervention. Lessons from Bougainville. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  28. Regan, A. J., & Griffin, H. M. (Eds.). (2005). Bougainville before the conflict. Canberra: Pandanus Books.Google Scholar
  29. Richmond, O. P. (2009a). A post-liberal peace: Eirenism and the everyday. Review of International Studies, 35, 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richmond, O. P. (2009b). The romanticisation of the local: Welfare, culture and peacebuilding. The International Spectator, 44(1), 149–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Richmond, O. P. (2011). A post-liberal peace. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Richmond, O. P. (2016). Peace formation and political order in conflict affected societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richmond, O. P. (2019). Peace and the formation of political order. International Peacekeeping, 26(1), 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Richmond, O. P., & Mac Ginty, R. (2014). Where now for the critique of the liberal peace? Cooperation and Conflict, 50(2), 171–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Richmond, O. P., & Mitchell, A. (Eds.). (2012). Hybrid forms of peace: From everyday agency to post-liberalism. Houndmills/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Tanis, J. (2002). Reconciliation: My side of the island. In A. Carl & L. Garasu (Eds.), Weaving consensus – The Papua New Guinea – Bougainville peace process (Conciliation resources accord issue 12/2002) (pp. 58–61). London: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
  37. UNDP. (2014). Peace and development analysis. Findings and Emerging Priorities. Port Moresby: United Nations Development Programme Papua New Guinea Country Office.Google Scholar
  38. Wallis, J. (2014). Constitution making during state building. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wehner, M., & Denoon, D. (Eds.). (2001). Without a gun. Australians’ experiences monitoring peace in Bougainville, 1997–2001. Canberra: Pandanus Books.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jasmin Ramovic
  • Liridona Veliu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Law and GovernmentDublin City UniversityDublinIreland