Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education

2019 Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho

Sustainable Development Goals

  • Arminda PaçoEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11352-0_325


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), considered a universal set of goals, targets, and indicators, primarily aim at ending poverty in all its forms by 2030 (UN 2015). According to Sachs (2012), these SDGs are based on the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), already launched in 2001 and that expired in 2015. These were (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality and empowering women; (4) reducing child mortality rates; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development (UN 2000). The deadline for achieving these goals was set out in the declaration as the year 2015, but, in June 2012 at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro (Rio+20), additional targets and tasks related were specified for each goal (Wysokińska 2017).

These MDGs have encountered several...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aichi-Nagoya Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development (2014) UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ERI/pdf/Aichi-Nagoya_Declaration_EN.pdf. Accessed on 28 Dec 2017
  2. Gupta J, Vegelin C (2016) Sustainable development goals and inclusive development. Int Environ Agreements 16:433–448.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-016-9323-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) (2016) UN launches SDGs financing platform Available at: http://sdg.iisd.org/news/un-launches-sdgs-financing-platform/. Accessed on 20 Dec 2017
  4. Lomazzi M, Borisch B, Laaser U (2014) The millennium development goals: experiences, achievements and what’s next. Glob Health Action 7:23695.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.23695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mader C, Rammel C (2015) Transforming Higher Education for Sustainable Development Brief for GSDR 2015. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/621564-Mader_Rammel_Transforming%20Higher%20Education%20for%20Sustainable%20Development.pdf. Accessed on 28 Dec 2017
  6. Neubauer C, Calame M (2017) Global pressing problems and the sustainable development goals. Available at: http://www.guninetwork.org/articles/global-pressing-problems-and-sustainable-development-goals. Accessed on 28 Dec 2017
  7. PRME (2015) Management education and the sustainable development goals. Transforming Education to Act Responsibly and Find Opportunities. Foundation for the Global CompactGoogle Scholar
  8. Sachs JD (2012) From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals. Lancet 379(9823):2206–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. UN (2000) Official list of MDG indicators. Available at: www.mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Host.aspx?Content_Indicators/OfficialList.htm. Accessed on 30 Nov 2017
  10. UN Assembly (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. United Nations Organization, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. UN Conference on trade and development (UNCTAD) (2016) World investment report 2016. Investor nationality: policy challenges. United Nations Organ, GenevaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2015) Indicators and a monitoring framework for the sustainable development goals. Launching a data revolution. United Nations Organ, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Vilalta JM (2017) Sustainable development goals: from science to action. Available at: www.guninetwork.org/articles/sustainable-development-goals-science-action. Accessed on 28 Dec 2017
  14. Wysokińska Z (2017) Millennium development goals/UN and sustainable development goals/UN as instruments for realising sustainable development concept in the global economy. Compar Econ Res 20(1):101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and Economics, NECEUniversity of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patrizia Lombardi
    • 1
  1. 1.Politecnico di TorinoTurinItaly