Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education

2019 Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho

Green Marketing and Sustainable Development

  • Jennifer BernsteinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11352-0_134



Green advertising is defined as the promotion of a product that has a positive effect on the biophysical environment or, at the least, is less harmful than products of a similar nature. Green advertising is predicated on the idea that consumers can address environmental problems through consumption of the “right” products rather than forgoing consumption all together.

Advertisements are ubiquitous. According to the market research firm Media Dynamics, a typical individual views 362 ads per day, though his or her attention is only held by 153 of them (Johnson 2014). Marketing refers to the entire process of selling a product, while advertising is more specific, namely, the production of promotional materials and their distribution across various forms of mass media (Corbett 2006). Advertising, traditionally, was an integral component of mass media campaigns and directed toward a homogenous mainstream audience. Relatively...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Akin CK, Freimuth V (1989) Formative evaluation research in campaign design. In: Rice RE, Atkin C (eds) Public communication campaigns. Sage, Beverly Hills, pp 131–150Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee S, Gulas CS, Iyer E (1995) Shades of Green: a multidimensional analysis of environmental advertising. J Advert 24(2):21–31.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1995.10673473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bator RJ, Cialdini RB (2000) The application of persuasion theory to the development of effective proenvironmental public service announcements. J Soc Issues 56(3):527–541. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= Scholar
  4. Bernstein JM, Szuster B, Philips L (2017) Assessing the diversity of contemporary environmentalism: time for a new paradigm. Int J Environ Res 11(5–6):641–652.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41742-017-0056-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benton LM (1995) Selling the Natural or Selling Out? Environmental Ethics, 17(1):3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgess J, Harrison CM, Filius P (1998) Environmental communication and the cultural politics of environmental citizenship. Environ Plan A 30:1445–1460. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1068/a301445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang C (2011) Feeling ambivalent about going Green. J Advert 40(4):19–31.  https://doi.org/10.2307/23208833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cialdini RB (2003) Crafting normative messages to protect the environment social psychology crafting normative messages to protect. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 12(4):105–109.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corbett J (2006) Communicating nature: how we create and understand environmental messages – Julia B. Corbett – Google Books. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Cronon W (1996) The trouble with wilderness getting back to the wrong nature. W.W. Norton. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/timbillo/Readings and documents/Wilderness/Cronon The trouble with Wilderness.pdf
  11. Davis S (1995) Touch the magic. In: Cronon W (ed) Uncommon ground: rethinking the human place in nature. W.W. Norton, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Diamantopoulos A, Schlegelmilch BB, Sinkovics RR, Bohlen GM (2003) Can socio-demographics still play a role in profiling green consumers? A review of the evidence and an empirical investigation. J Bus Res 56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00241-7
  13. Dunlap RE (2008) The new environmental paradigm scale: from marginality to worldwide use. J Environ Educ.  https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.40.1.3-18
  14. Fisk G (1974) Marketing and the ecological crisis. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Ford (1922) Ford ideals: being a selection from “Mr. Ford’s page”, DearbornGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunster S (2004) “You belong outside”: advertising, nature, and the SUV. Ethics Environ 9(2):4–32.  https://doi.org/10.1353/een.2005.0003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guthman J (2008) Bringing good food to others: investigating the subjects of alternative food practice. Cult Geogr 15(4):431–447.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474474008094315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartmann P, Apaolaza-Ibáñez V (2009) Green advertising revisited. Int J Advert 28(4):715–739.  https://doi.org/10.2501/S0265048709200837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartmann P, Ibáñez VA, Javier F, Sainz F (2005) Green branding effects on attitude: functional versus emotional positioning strategies. Mark Intell Plan 23(1):9–29.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500510577447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Iyer E, Banerjee B (1993) Anatomy of Green advertising. ACR North Am Adv NA-20. Retrieved from http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/7499/volumes/v20/NA-20
  21. Johnson S (2014) New research sheds light on daily ad exposures. SJ Insights. https://sjinsights.net/2014/09/29/new-research-sheds-light-on-daily-ad-exposures/
  22. Kanchanapibul M, Lacka E, Wang X, Chan HK (2014) An empirical investigation of green purchase behaviour among the young generation. J Clean Prod 66:528–536.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2013.10.062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kilbourne WE (1995) Green advertising: salvation or oxymoron? J Advert 24(2):7–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1995.10673472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klein N (1999) No logo: no space, no choice, no jobs. Random House of CanadaGoogle Scholar
  25. Kollmuss A, Agyeman J (2002) Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environ Educ Res.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620220145401
  26. Krech S (1999) The ecological Indian: myth and history. W.W. Norton. Retrieved from http://www.humanecologyreview.org/pastissues/her81/81bookreviews.pdf
  27. Leonidou LC, Leonidou CN, Palihawadana D, Hultman M (2011) Evaluating the green advertising practices of international firms: a trend analysis. Int Mark Rev 28.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331111107080
  28. Luke TW (1993) Green consumerism: ecology and the ruse of recycling. In: In the Nature of Things: language, politics and the Environment. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 154–172Google Scholar
  29. Mckenzie-Mohr D (2000) Promoting sustainable behavior: an introduction to community-based social marketing. J Soc Issues 56(3):543–554. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/~kcarmel/CC_BehavChange_Course/readings/Additional Resources/J Soc Issues 2000/mckenzie_2000_12_socialmarketing_a.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Milfont TL, Duckitt J (2010) The environmental attitudes inventory: a valid and reliable measure to assess the structure of environmental attitudes. J Environ Psychol 30(1):80–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JENVP.2009.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nabhan GP (1987) The desert smells like rain: a naturalist in Papago Indian country. North Point Press. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/114a/0df680f2e2aec1f8ebc824217d16d1c71eaf.pdf
  32. Nadasdy P (2005) Transcending the debate over the ecologically noble Indian: Indigenous peoples and environmentalism. Ethnohistory 52(2):291–331.  https://doi.org/10.1215/00141801-52-2-291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nisbet MC (2014) Disruptive ideas: public intellectuals and their arguments for action on climate change. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 5(6):809–823.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ogilvy D (1963) Confessions of an advertising man. Athenum, New York. Retrieved from https://www.unc.edu/courses/2006ss2/jomc/170/001/JakeShelton.pdfGoogle Scholar
  35. Olsen RK (2002) Living above it all: the liminal fantasy of sports utility vehicle advertisements. In: Meister M, Japp PM (eds) Enviropop: studies in environmental rhetoric and popular culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. Praeger, Westport, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  36. Oravec CL (1996) To stand outside oneself: the sublime in the discourse of natural scenery. In: The symbolic earth. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, pp 58–75Google Scholar
  37. Peattie K, Crane A (2005) Green marketing: legend, myth, farce or prophesy? Qual Mark Res Int J 8(4):357–370.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750510619733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pollay Richard W, Katherine G (2000) “Advertising and cultural values: Reflections in the distorted mirror.” International Journal of Advertising 9, no. 4 (1990): 359–372Google Scholar
  39. Price J (1995) Looking for nature at the mall: a field guide to the nature company. In: Cronon W (ed) Uncommon ground: rethinking the human place in nature. W.W. Norton, London, pp 186–203Google Scholar
  40. Pyne SJ (1982) Fire in America. A cultural history of wildland and rural fire. Princeton University Press, Princeton Retrieved from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19830686042Google Scholar
  41. Rice RE, Atkin CK (1989) Trends in communication campaign research. In: Public communication campaigns, vol 7. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  42. Salvador P (2011) The myth of the natural in advertising. Catalan J Commun Cult Stud 3(1):79–93.  https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs.3.1.79_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saunders CD, Brook AT, Myers OE (2006) Using psychology to save biodiversity and human well-being. Conserv Biol 20(3):702–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schudson M (2013) Advertising, the uneasy persuasion. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Szasz A (2007) Shopping our way to safety: how we changed from protecting the environment to protecting ourselves. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  46. Twitchell JB (1997) Adcult USA: the triumph of advertising in American culture. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Wals J, Jickling B (2002) “Sustainability” in higher education: from doublethink and newspeak to critical thinking. Int J Sustain Higher Educ 3(4):221–232. Retrieved from.  https://doi.org/10.1108/14676370210434688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. White R (1996) “Are you an environmentalist or do you work for a living?” Work and nature. In: Uncommon ground: rethinking the human place in nature. W.W. Norton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Yang D, Lu Y, Zhu W, Su C (2015) Going green: how different advertising appeals impact green consumption behavior. J Bus Res 68:2663–2675.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zinkhan GM, Carlson L (1995) Green advertising and the reluctant consumer. Journal of Advertising, 24(2):1–6Google Scholar
  51. Zinkhan GM, Carlson L, Journal S, Summer GA, Taylor P, Zinkhan GM, Carlson L (2016) Green Advertising Reluctant Consum Greening Corp Am 24(2):1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial Sciences InstituteUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Erin Hopkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA