Ethnobotany and Recent Advances in Indian Medicinal Orchids

Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


India is very rich in orchid genetic resource. It is estimated that about 1300 species occur within the political boundaries of India, of which nearly 150 species are used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and tribal system of medicine. The country has been paying attention to ornamental orchids for the use in floriculture industry, but the orchid therapeutics did not catch such attention which also has similar potential to contribute in economy and health of the people. The present chapter takes a look on uses of orchids in traditional medicine system as well as progress made for their utilization in healthcare system.


Orchids Ayurveda Medicinal Phytochemicals 


  1. 1.
    Jeffrey D, White JD, O’Keefe BR, Sharma J, Javed G, Nukala V, Ganguly A, Khan IA, Kumar NB, Mukhtar HF, Pauli GF, Walker L, Sivaram Rajaraman SP, Trimble EL (2016) India-United States dialogue on traditional medicine: toward collaborative research and generation of an evidence base. J Glob Oncol. Published online November 16, 2017
  2. 2.
    Teoh ES (2016) Medicinal orchids of Asia. Springer International Publishing, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Virk JK, Gupta V, Kumar S, Singh R, Bansal P (2017) Ashtawarga plants – suffering a triple standardization syndrome. J Tradit Complement Med 7:392–399PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kong JM, Goh NK, Chia LS, Chia TF (2003) Recent advances in traditional plant drugs and orchids. Acta Pharmacol Sin 24:7–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasad LV. (2002) In: Chaudhury RR, Rafei UM (eds) Indian system of medicine and homoeopathy traditional medicine in Asia. WHO-Regional Office for South East Asia, New Delhi, pp 283–286Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ (2007) Indian system of medicine: a brief profile. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 4:319–337PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kant R, Verma J, Thakur K (2012) Distribution pattern, survival threats and conservation of Ashtavarga orchids in Himachal Pradesh Northwest Himalaya. Plant Arch 12:165–168Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma P, Mahajan N, Garg P, Singh G, Dadhwal S, Sharma S (2011) Malaxis acuminata: a review. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2:422–425Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Middha A, Purohit S (2011) Determination of free radical scavenging activity in herbal supplement: Chyawanprash. Int J Drug Dev Res 3:328–333Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dash PK, Sahoo S, Subhasisa B (2008) Ethnobotanical studies on orchids of Niyamgiri Hill ranges, Orissa, India. Ethnobot Leafl 12:70–78Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panda SP, Sharief MU, Hameed SS, Pramanik A (2015) Traditional phytotheraphic record of orchids of Odisha and their conservation strategies. Ann Plant Sci 4:1204–1207Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ray S, Sainkhediya J, Chouhan DS (2015) Rare and threatened flowering plants of Harda. IJSR 6:2119–2123Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jabin F (2011) A guiding tool in Unani Tibb for maintenance and preservation of health: a review study. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 8:140–143PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Develi IN, Dönmez MN, Kozan N, Karababa E (2015) Rheological properties of salep powder-milk mixture. J Food Sci Technol 52:6556–6564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pragada PM, Rao GMN (2012) Ethnoveterinary medicinal practices in tribal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Bangladesh J Plant Taxon 19:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ekka A (2013) Some plants used by Hill-Korwa in their health care from Chhattisgarh. Int J Life Sci Biotechnol Pharma Res 2:198–203Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deb CR, Deb MS, Jamir NS, Imchen T (2009) Orchids in indigenous system of medicine in Nagaland, India. Pleione 3:209–211Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perme N, Choudhury SN, Choudhury R, Natung T, De B (2015) Medicinal plants in traditional use at Arunachal Pradesh, India. Int J Phytopharm 5:86–98Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shapoo GA, Kaloo ZA, Ganie AH, Singh S (2013) Ethnobotanical survey and documentation of some orchid species of Kashmir Himalaya, J&K-India. Int J Pharm Biol Res 4:32–40Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hossain MM (2011) Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances: an overview. Fitoterapia 82:102–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tiwari AP, Joshi B, Ansari AA (2012) Less known ethnomedicinal uses of some orchids by the tribal inhabitants of Amarkantak Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nat Sci 10:33–37Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shanavaskhan AE, Sivadasan M, Alfarhan AH, Thomas J (2012) Ethnomedicinal aspects of angiospermic epiphytes and parasites of Kerala, India. Indian J Tradit Knowl 11:250–258Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuvar SD, Bapat UC (2010) Medicinal plants used by kokani tribals of Nasik district Maharashtra to cure cut and wounds. Indian J Tradit Knowl 9:114–115Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anonymous (2006) The wealth of India, revised edn. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mishra SB, Dwivedi S, Shashi A, Prajapati K (2008) Ethnomedicinal uses of some plant species by ethnic and rural peoples of the Salem district of Tamil Nadu with special reference to the conservation of vanishing species. Ethnobot Leafl 12:873–887Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Nayar SL (1956) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maridass M, Raju G, Ghanthikumar S (2008) Tissue – regenerative responses on tuber extracts of Eulophia epidendraea (Retz.) Fischer, in: Wistar Rat. Pharmacologyonline 3:631–636Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anuradha V, Rao P (1994) Praemorsin, a new phenanthropyran from Acampae praemorsa. Phytochemistry 37(3):909–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kala S, Senthilkumar S (2010) Antimicrobial activity of Acanthephippium bicolor, Lindley, Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 6(2):140–148Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Joshi GC, Tewari LM, Lohani N, Upreti K, Jalal JS, Tewari G (2009) Diversity of orchids in Uttarakhand and their conservation strategy with special reference to their medicinal importance. Rep Opin 1:47–52Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anuradha V, Prakash NS (1998) A phenanthropyran from Aerides crispum. Phytochemistry 48:185–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Linthoingambi L, Das AK, Singh PK, Ghosh SK (2013) Medicinal uses of orchids by tribes in India: a review. Int J Curr Res 5:2796–2798Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghanaksh A, Kaushik P (1999) Antibacterial effect of Aerides multiflora Roxb. A study in vitro. J Orchid Soc India 13:65–68Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Majumder PL, Banerjee S, Sen S (1995) Stilbenoids from the orchids Agrostophyllum callosum and Coelogyne flaccida. Phytochemistry 39:649–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Majumder PL, Banerjee S, Sen S (1996) Three stilbenoids from the orchid Agrostophyllum callosum. Phytochemistry 42:847–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Majumder PL, Banderjee S, Lahari S, Mukhoti N, Sen S (1998) Dimeric phenanthrenes from two Agrostophyllum species. Phytochemistry 47:855–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Majumder PL, Sen S, Banerjee S (1999) Agrostophyllol and isoagrostophyllol, two novel diastereomeric 9,10-dihydrophenanthropyran derivatives from the orchid Agrostophyllum callosum. Tetrahedron 55:6691–6702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Majumdar PL, Majumder S, Sen S (2003) Triterpenoids from the orchids Agrostophyllum breirps and Agrostophyllum callosum. Phytochemistry 62:591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Biswas A, Bari MA, Roy M, Bhadra SK (2010) Inherited folk pharmaceutical knowledge of tribal people in the Chittagong Hill tracts Bangladesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 9:77–89Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singh A, Duggal S (2009) Medicinal orchids: an overview. Ethnobot Leafl 13:351–363Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Majumder PL, Ghosal S (1991) Arundinol, a new triterpene from the orchid Arundina bambusifolia. J Indian Chem Soc 68:88–91Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Majumder PL, Ghosal S (1993) Two stilbenoids from the orchid Arundina bambusifolia. Phytochemistry 32:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Majumder PL, Ghosal S (1994) Two stilbenoids from the orchid Arundina bambusifolia. Phytochemistry 35:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ahmad N (1997) Wild flowers of Bangladesh. UPL, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu MF, Ding Y, Zhang DM (2005) Phenanthrene constituents from rhizome of Arundina graminifolia. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 30:353–356PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu MF, Han Y, Xing DM, Shi Y, Xu LZ, Du LJ, Ding YI (2004) A new stilbenoid from Arundina graminifolia. Asian Nat Prod Res 6:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu MF, Han Y, Xing DM, Wang W, Xu LZ, Du LJ, Ding Y (2005) One new benzyldihydrophenanthrene from Arundina graminifolia. Asian Nat Prod Res 7:767–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Liu M, Lv H, Ding Y (2012) Antitumoral bibenzyl derivatives from tuber of Arundina graminifolia. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 37(1):66–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lalitharani S, Mohan VR, Maruthupandian A (2011) Pharmacognostic investigations on Bulbophyllum albidum (Wight) Hook. f. Int J PharmTech Res 3:556–562Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Saranya B, Gopalan R, Narmatha bai V, Mahendran G (2012) Rare and threatened orchid species used for various diseases by Irulars, Vellingiri hills, Coimbatore. Int J Sci Res Publ 2:1–2Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kalaiarasan A, Kumar P, Ahmed John S (2012) Bio-chemical investigation of Bulbophyllum kaitense rechib root by GC-MS. Eastern Ghats of India. Nat Sci 10:29–31Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kalaiarasan PK, Ahmed John S (2012) Antimicrobial activity of Bulbophyllum kaitense. Rechib. Stem eastern penisular flora in India. J Nat Sci 10:41–44Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kalaiarasan A, Ahmed John S (2012) In-vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activity of Bulbophyllum kaitense Rechib. Pseudobulb extract by HRBC method, eastern peninsular flora in South India. Int J Sci Res Publ 2:1–5Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rajendran AN, Rao R, Ravi Kumar K, Henry AN (1997) Some medicinal orchids of Southern India. Anc Sci Life 17:10–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Barthel M (2008) Pharmaceutical compositions containing bulbophyllum and their use for treating illnesses. Patent grant No. 7939112; publication date Sep 4 2008Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kumari P, Joshi GC, Tewari LM (2011) Diversity and status of ethno-medicinal plants of Almora district in Uttarakhand, India. Int J Biodivers Conserv 3:298–326Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sharma C, Kumari T, Arya KR (2014) Ethnopharmacological survey on bone healing plants with special references to Pholidota articulata and Coelogyne cristata (Orchidaceae) used in folk tradition of Kumaon, Uttarakhand, India. Int J Pharma Res Health Sci 2:185–190Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Majumder PL, Laha S, Datta N (1982) Coelonin, a 9.10-dihydrophenanthrene from the orchids Coelogyne ochracea and Coelogyne elata. Phytochemistry 21:478–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Majumder PL, Sen S, Majumder S (2001) Phenanthrene derivatives from the orchid Coelogyne cristata. Phytochemistry 58(4):581–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lyudmyla B, Halyna T, Zbigniew O, Lyudmyla K, Oleksand G (2016) Antimicrobial activity screening of extrants from leaves and pseudobulbs of Coelogyne cristata Lindl. (Orchidaceae). In: The scientific proceedings of the international network AgroBioNet, agrobiodiversity for improving nutrition, health and life quality, pp 40–44Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pramanick DD (2016) Pharmacognostic studies on the pseudobulb of Coelogynecristata Lindl. (Orchidaceae)-an epiphytic orchid of ethno-medicinal importance. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 5:120–123Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jain SK (1991) Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep Publications, LucknowGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Agrawal DP (2005) Himalayan medicine system and its materia medica.
  64. 64.
    Dhiman AK (2004) Medicinal plants of Uttaranchal state. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office, VaranasiGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Trivedi VP, Dixit RS, Lal VK (1980) Orchids in the drug markets of Bareilly, Kanpur and nearby districts. Nagarjun (Calcutta) 23(8):157–163Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moin S, Shibu BS, Wesley PS, Devi BC (2012) Bioactive potential of Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr: an ornamental and medicinally important orchid. J Pharm Res 5:2191–2196Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Joseph J (1977) Quest of medicinal plants and re-establishment of their medicinal virtues. In: Atal C, Kapur BM (eds) Cultivation and utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants. Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu TawiGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kovacs A, Vasas A, Hohmann J (2007) Natural phenanthrenes and their biological activity. Phytochemistry 69:1084–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Howlader MA, Alam M (2011) Central nervous system depressant effects of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.). J Appl Pharm Sci 1:60–62Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Juneja RK, Sharma SC, Tandon JS (1987) Two substituted bibenzyls and a dihydrophenanthrene from Cymbidium aloifolium. Phytochemistry 26:1123–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barua AK, Ghosh BB, Ray S, Patra A (1990) Cymbinobin-A, a phenanthraquinone from Cymbidium aloifolium. Phytochemistry 29:3046–3047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ghosh BB, Ray S, Bhattacharyya P et al (1992) Cymbinodin B, a phenanthraquinone from Cymbidium aloifolium. Indian J Chem 31B:557–558Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Howlader MA, Alam M, Ahmad KT, Khatun F, Apu AS (2011) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.). Pak J Biol Sci 14:909–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Radhika B, Murthy JVVSN, Grace DN (2013) Preliminary phytochemical analysis & antibacterial activity against clinical pathogen of medicinally important orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. Int J Pharm Sci Res 4:3925–3931Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vij SP, Srivastav RC, Mainra AK (1992) On the occurrence of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo in Sikkim. Orchid News 8–9:14–15Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lal B, Negi HR, Singh RD, Ahuja PS (2004) Medicinal uses of Dactylorhiza hatagirea among the natives of higher altitudes in Western Himalaya. J Orchid Soc India 18:97–100Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bulpitt CJ (2005) Occasional paper: the uses and misuses of orchids in medicine. Q J Med 98:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kala CP (2005) Indigenous uses, population density, and conservation of threatened medicinal plants in protected areas of the Indian Himalayas. Conserv Biol 19:368–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Thakur M, Dixit VK (2007) Effect of some vajikaran herbs on pendiculation activities and in vitro sperm count in male. Sex Disabil 25:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ranpal S (2009) An assessment of status and antibacterial properties of Dactylorhiza hatagirea in Annapurna Conservation Area (A case study of Paplekharka, Lete VDC, Mustang). B. Sc. Forestry Research thesis submitted to Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, PokharaGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Izu HK, Aneko EK, Omimori TT (1999) Studies on Nepalese crude drugs, chemical constituents of panch aunle, the roots of Dactylorhiza hatagirea D. Chem Pharm Bull 47:1618–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rao TA, Sridhar S (2007) Wild orchids in Karnataka. A pictorial compendium, Institute of Natural Resources Conservation, Education, Research and Training (INCERT), BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nagananda GS, Satishchandra N (2013) Antimicrobial activity of cold and hot successive pseudobulb extracts of Flickingeria nodosa (Dalz.) Seidenf. Pak J Biol Sci 16:1189–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chakrabarty M, Datta GK, Ghosh S, Debnath PK (2001) Induction of antioxidative enzyme by the ayurvedic herb Desmotrichum fimbriatum Bl. in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 39:485–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sudhanshu, Rao N, Mittal S, Vishal, Menghani E (2012) Antioxidant agents alternative source for malaria disease. Indian J Appl Pharm 4:14–16Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Medhi RP, Chakrabarti S (2009) Traditional knowledge of NE people on conservation of wild orchids. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8:11–16Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Maridass M, Thangavel K, Raju G (2008) Antidiabetic activity of tuber extract of Eulophia epidendraea (Retz.) Fisher (Orchidaceae) in alloxan diabetic rats. Pharmacologyonline 3:606–617Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Maridass M, Ramesh U (2010) Investigation of phytochemical constituents from Eulophia epidendraea. Int J Biol Technol 1:1–7Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Maridass M (2011) Anti diarrhoeal activity of rare orchid Eulophia epidendraea (Retz.) Fisher. Nat Pharm Technol 1:5–10Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Anonymous (2003) The wealth of India: a dictionary of India raw material and industrial products. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tatiya A, Surana S, Bhavsar S, Patil D, Patil Y (2012) Pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical investigation of Eulophia herbacea Lindl. tubers (Orchidaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2:S50–S55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sikarwar RLS, Phathak B, Jaiswal A (2008) Some unique ethnomedical properties of tribal communities of Chitrakoot, Madya Pradesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 7:613–617Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jagdale SP, Shimpi SD, Chachad D (2009) Pharmacological studies of salep. J Herb Med Toxicol 3:153–156Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ruchi KS, Upadhyaya R, Trivedi US, Tiwari S (2012) Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Eulophia nuda Lindl. an endangered orchid. Int J Pharm Res Bio-Sci 1:456–462Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Aberoumand A (2010) Evaluating potential values of phytate, trypsin inhibitors and polyphenols in plants based diets. Pak J Food Sci 20:50–53Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nadkarni N (1976) Indian natural medical, vol 1. Popular Prakashan, BombayGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Meena AK, Rao MM (2009) Folk herbal medicines used by the Meena community in Ali Aberoumand and S.S. Deokule proximate and mineral composition of wild coco (Eulophia ochreata L.) tubers in Iran. J Food Agro-Ind 2:203–209Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jagtap S, Gilda S, Bhondave P, Paradkar A, Pawar P, Harsulkar A (2009) Validation of the potential of Eulophia ochreata L. tubers for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Pharmacologyonline 2:307–316Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Maridass M, Victor B, Ramesh U (2005) Ethnobotanical information of Eulophia epidendraea (Retz) Fischer (Orchidaceae) in the Kambli Malaikovil Forest, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu. Bombay Nat Hist Soc 102:255–257Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jain A, Katewa S, Galav P, Ambika N (2007) Unrecorded ethnomedicinal uses of biodiversity from Tadgarh-Raoli wild life sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Acta Bot Yunnanic 29:337–344Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Aswal BS (1992) Less known medicinal uses of three plants from Kumaun Himalaya (India) Indian. J For 15:76–77Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Chauhan NS (1990) Medicinal orchids of Himachal Pradesh. J Orchid Soc India 4:99–105Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dey AC (1982) Indian medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic preparations. Bishan Singh Mahender Pal Singh, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Habbu PV, Smita DM, Mahadevan KM, Shastry RA, Biradar SM (2012) Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigs in rats. Braz J Pharmacogn 22:568–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pérez Gutiérrez RM (2010) Orchids: a review of uses in traditional medicine, its phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Med Plants Res 4:592–638Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chinmay R, Kumari S, Bishnupriya D, Mohanty RC, Dixit R, Padhi MM, Babu R (2011) Phyto-pharmacognostical studies of two endangered species of Malaxis (Jeevak and Rishibhak). Pharmacogn J 3:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bhatnagar JK, Handa SS, Duggal SC (1970) Chemical investigation on Microstylis wallichii. Planta Med 20:157–161Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chauhan RS, Nautiyal MO, Prasad P, Purohit H (2008) Ecological features of an endangered medicinal orchid – Malaxis muscifera (Lindley) Kuntze in Western Himalaya. McAllen Int Orchid Soc J 9:8–12Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sarkar PK, Agrawal VV (1978) Notes on Pholidota pallida Lindl. and its use in Ranchi district Bihar. Bull Bot Surv India 20:182–183Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nadkarni AK (1954) Dr. K.M. Nadkarni’s Indian materia medica, vol 2, 3rd edn. Popular Book Depot, BombayGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bi ZM, Wang ZT, Xu LS, Xu GJ (2004) Studies on chemical constituents of Pholidota yunnanensis. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 29:47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Guo XY, Wang J, Wang NL, Kitanaka S, Liu HW, Yao XS (2006) New stilbenoids from Pholidota yunnanensis and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Al-Amin M, Sultana GNN, Hossain CF (2012) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Rhynchostylis retusa. Biol Med 3:55–59Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kirtikar PK, Basu BD (1975) Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edn. (Reprint Ed. 1975). M/s Bishen Singh MahendraPal Singh, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Usman MRB, Chhaya G, Surekha CG, Lalit S, Samadhan B (2012) Pharmacognostical Evaluations of Some Herbal Plant. IJARPB 2(3):302–310Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kumar PKS, Subramoniam A, Pushpangadan P (2000) Aphrodisiac activity of Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook.Ex Don extract in male mice Indian. J Pharmacol 32:300–304Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ahmad F, Sayeed A, Islam A, Abdus Salam SM, Sadik G, Sattar MA, Astaq Mohal Khan GRM (2002) Antimicrobial activity of extracts a glycoside from Vanda roxburghii R Br. Pak J Biol Sci 5:189–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kumar S (2002) The medicinal plants of North-East India. Scientific Publishers, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Singh MP, Dey S (2005) Indian medicinal plants. Satish Serial Publishing House, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Reddy CS, Pattanaik C, Murthy MSR, Reddy KN (2005) Orchids of Eastern Ghats, India. EPTRI-ENVIS Newslett 11:6–12Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Research Centre for Orchids, Darjeeling CampusDarjeelingIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-National Research Center on Seed and SpicesTabiji, AjmerIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Research Centre for OrchidsPakyongIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jean-Michel Mérillon
    • 1
  1. 1.Groupe d’Etude des Substances VGroupe d’Etude des Substances VInstitut des Sciences de la Vigne et du VinUniversité de BordeauxVillenave d’OrnonFrance

Personalised recommendations